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Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers

Inge Huybrechts UGent, Yi Lin, Willem De Keyzer UGent, Isabelle Sioen UGent, T Mouratidou, LA Moreno, N Slimani, M Jenab, S Vandevijvere, Gui De Backer UGent, et al. (2011) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 65(9). p.1039-1047
abstract
Background/Objectives: Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers. Subjects/Methods: Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% boys) were used (66% of 1052 collected diaries). Contribution of 58 food groups to calcium and vitamin D intake were computed. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors. Results: Mean calcium intake (844 mg per day) was above, and mean vitamin D intake (2.0 mu g per day) largely below the Belgian recommendations. Milk, sweetened milk drinks and cheese were the main sources of calcium intakes (26, 25 and 11%, respectively). Butter and margarine were the main vitamin D sources (26%), followed by growth milk (-fortified milk) (20%) and fish (15%). Calcium and vitamin D intake were negatively associated with participants' age, and calcium positively with parental education and family size. The child's gender, supplement use and physical activity level, and the employment status and smoking behaviour of the parents were not associated with calcium or vitamin D intake. Conclusions: Flemish preschoolers had too low vitamin D intakes while most had adequate calcium intakes. Milk (including sweetened, fortified/growth milk) was the main food source of calcium intake and the second important source of vitamin D intake after butter and margarine. Calcium intake was positively associated with parental education, while vitamin D intake was not.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
SPANISH CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS, economic, sociodemographic, child, calcium, dietary sources, vitamin D, NUTRIENTS, FOOD, SUPPLEMENTATION, DENSITY, ENERGY, LEVEL
journal title
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.
volume
65
issue
9
pages
1039 - 1047
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000294665500008
JCR category
NUTRITION & DIETETICS
JCR impact factor
2.462 (2011)
JCR rank
30/71 (2011)
JCR quartile
2 (2011)
ISSN
0954-3007
DOI
10.1038/ejcn.2011.71
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1847950
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1847950
date created
2011-06-30 00:18:35
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:46:41
@article{1847950,
  abstract     = {Background/Objectives: Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers. 
Subjects/Methods: Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51\% boys) were used (66\% of 1052 collected diaries). Contribution of 58 food groups to calcium and vitamin D intake were computed. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors. 
Results: Mean calcium intake (844 mg per day) was above, and mean vitamin D intake (2.0 mu g per day) largely below the Belgian recommendations. Milk, sweetened milk drinks and cheese were the main sources of calcium intakes (26, 25 and 11\%, respectively). Butter and margarine were the main vitamin D sources (26\%), followed by growth milk (-fortified milk) (20\%) and fish (15\%). Calcium and vitamin D intake were negatively associated with participants' age, and calcium positively with parental education and family size. The child's gender, supplement use and physical activity level, and the employment status and smoking behaviour of the parents were not associated with calcium or vitamin D intake. 
Conclusions: Flemish preschoolers had too low vitamin D intakes while most had adequate calcium intakes. Milk (including sweetened, fortified/growth milk) was the main food source of calcium intake and the second important source of vitamin D intake after butter and margarine. Calcium intake was positively associated with parental education, while vitamin D intake was not.},
  author       = {Huybrechts, Inge and Lin, Yi and De Keyzer, Willem and Sioen, Isabelle and Mouratidou, T and Moreno, LA and Slimani, N and Jenab, M and Vandevijvere, S and De Backer, Gui and De Henauw, Stefaan},
  issn         = {0954-3007},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {SPANISH CHILDREN,ADOLESCENTS,INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS,economic,sociodemographic,child,calcium,dietary sources,vitamin D,NUTRIENTS,FOOD,SUPPLEMENTATION,DENSITY,ENERGY,LEVEL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {1039--1047},
  title        = {Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.71},
  volume       = {65},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Huybrechts, Inge, Yi Lin, Willem De Keyzer, Isabelle Sioen, T Mouratidou, LA Moreno, N Slimani, et al. 2011. “Dietary Sources and Sociodemographic and Economic Factors Affecting Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes in Flemish Preschoolers.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (9): 1039–1047.
APA
Huybrechts, I., Lin, Y., De Keyzer, W., Sioen, I., Mouratidou, T., Moreno, L., Slimani, N., et al. (2011). Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 65(9), 1039–1047.
Vancouver
1.
Huybrechts I, Lin Y, De Keyzer W, Sioen I, Mouratidou T, Moreno L, et al. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2011;65(9):1039–47.
MLA
Huybrechts, Inge, Yi Lin, Willem De Keyzer, et al. “Dietary Sources and Sociodemographic and Economic Factors Affecting Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes in Flemish Preschoolers.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 65.9 (2011): 1039–1047. Print.