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HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda

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Abstract
Objective To compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including HIV) and of high-risk sexual behaviour in the following three groups: primary infertile relationships, secondary infertile relationships and fertile relationships. Primary infertility is here defined as never having conceived before, secondary infertility as infertility subsequent to having conceived at least once. Design Unmatched case-control study. Methods Sexually active infertile women aged 21-45 years presenting at an infertility clinic of the Kigali Teaching Hospital, Rwanda and their male partners were invited to participate. Fertile controls who had recently delivered were recruited from the community. In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about sociodemographic characteristics and their sexual behaviours, and tested for HIV and STIs. Results Between November 2007 and May 2009, 312 women and 254 partners in infertile relationships and 312 women and 189 partners in fertile relationships were enrolled. Involvement in a secondary infertile relationship was associated with HIV infection after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates for women (adjusted OR (AOR)=4.03, 95% CI 2.4 to 6.7) and for men (AOR=3.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.4). Involvement in a primary infertile relationship, however, was not. Secondary infertile women were more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour during their lifetime compared with primary infertile and fertile women. Men in primary and secondary infertile relationships more often reported multiple partners in the past year (AOR=5.4, 95% CI 2.2 to 12.7; AOR=7.1, 95% CI 3.2 to 15.8, respectively). Conclusions Increased HIV prevalence and risky sexual behaviour among infertile couples is driven by secondary infertility. Infertile couples, and especially those with secondary infertility, should be targeted for HIV prevention programmes and their fertility problems should be addressed.
Keywords
FERTILITY, WOMEN, NIGERIA, IMPACT, PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS

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Chicago
Dhont, Nathalie, Mambo-Claude Muvunyi, Stanley Lüchters, Joseph Vyankandondera, Ludwig De Naeyer, Marleen Temmerman, and Janneke van de Wijgert. 2011. “HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour in Primary Secondary Infertile Relationships: a Case-control Study in Kigali, Rwanda.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 87 (1): 28–34.
APA
Dhont, N., Muvunyi, M.-C., Lüchters, S., Vyankandondera, J., De Naeyer, L., Temmerman, M., & van de Wijgert, J. (2011). HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS, 87(1), 28–34.
Vancouver
1.
Dhont N, Muvunyi M-C, Lüchters S, Vyankandondera J, De Naeyer L, Temmerman M, et al. HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS. 2011;87(1):28–34.
MLA
Dhont, Nathalie, Mambo-Claude Muvunyi, Stanley Lüchters, et al. “HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour in Primary Secondary Infertile Relationships: a Case-control Study in Kigali, Rwanda.” SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 87.1 (2011): 28–34. Print.
@article{1844575,
  abstract     = {Objective To compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including HIV) and of high-risk sexual behaviour in the following three groups: primary infertile relationships, secondary infertile relationships and fertile relationships. Primary infertility is here defined as never having conceived before, secondary infertility as infertility subsequent to having conceived at least once. Design Unmatched case-control study. Methods Sexually active infertile women aged 21-45 years presenting at an infertility clinic of the Kigali Teaching Hospital, Rwanda and their male partners were invited to participate. Fertile controls who had recently delivered were recruited from the community. In a face-to-face interview, participants were asked about sociodemographic characteristics and their sexual behaviours, and tested for HIV and STIs. Results Between November 2007 and May 2009, 312 women and 254 partners in infertile relationships and 312 women and 189 partners in fertile relationships were enrolled. Involvement in a secondary infertile relationship was associated with HIV infection after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates for women (adjusted OR (AOR)=4.03, 95\% CI 2.4 to 6.7) and for men (AOR=3.3, 95\% CI 1.8 to 6.4). Involvement in a primary infertile relationship, however, was not. Secondary infertile women were more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour during their lifetime compared with primary infertile and fertile women. Men in primary and secondary infertile relationships more often reported multiple partners in the past year (AOR=5.4, 95\% CI 2.2 to 12.7; AOR=7.1, 95\% CI 3.2 to 15.8, respectively). Conclusions Increased HIV prevalence and risky sexual behaviour among infertile couples is driven by secondary infertility. Infertile couples, and especially those with secondary infertility, should be targeted for HIV prevention programmes and their fertility problems should be addressed.},
  author       = {Dhont, Nathalie and Muvunyi, Mambo-Claude and L{\"u}chters, Stanley and Vyankandondera, Joseph and De Naeyer, Ludwig and Temmerman, Marleen and van de Wijgert, Janneke},
  issn         = {1368-4973},
  journal      = {SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS},
  keyword      = {FERTILITY,WOMEN,NIGERIA,IMPACT,PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE,SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA,HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {28--34},
  title        = {HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.2010.042879},
  volume       = {87},
  year         = {2011},
}

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