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Roles for azorhizobial Nod factors and surface polysaccharides in intercellular invasion and nodule penetration, respectively

Wim D'Haeze (UGent) , Mengsheng Gao (UGent) , Riet De Rycke (UGent) , Marc Van Montagu (UGent) , Gilbert Engler (UGent) and Marcella Holsters (UGent)
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Abstract
In the symbiotic interaction between Azorhizobium caulinodans and Sesbania rostrata root and stem-borne nodules are formed. The bacteria enter the host via intercellular spaces at lateral or adventitious root bases and form infection pockets in outer cortical layers. Infection threads guide the bacteria to nodule primordia where plant cells are invaded. To identify bacterial functions that are required for this infection process, two mutants defective in nodulation were studied; one produced no Nod factors (nodA mutant), the other had altered surface polysaccharides (SPS) and induced the formation of pseudo-nodules, Bacteria were visualized with the help of a nodA-uidA reporter fusion that was functional during nodule development and in bacteroids. In contrast to the SPS mutant, nodA mutants were unable to colonize outer cortical regions. In mixed inoculations with both mutants, functional nodules were formed, the central tissue of which was occupied by the nodA mutant. These observations suggest that SPS play a role in deeper invasion and that Nod factors are necessary for entry. Simultaneous application of purified Nod factors and nodA mutant bacteria restored the formation of outer cortical infection pockets leading to the conclusion that intercellular infection is an active process that is dependent on bacterial Nod factor signaling.
Keywords
RHIZOBIUM-MELILOTI, BROAD HOST RANGE, SESBANIA-ROSTRATA, BETA-GLUCURONIDASE, CAULINODANS ORS571, NODULATION FACTORS, NITROGEN-FIXATION, STEM NODULES, VICIA-SATIVA, INFECTION

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Chicago
D’Haeze, Wim, Mengsheng Gao, Riet De Rycke, Marc Van Montagu, Gilbert Engler, and Marcella Holsters. 1998. “Roles for Azorhizobial Nod Factors and Surface Polysaccharides in Intercellular Invasion and Nodule Penetration, Respectively.” Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions 11 (10): 999–1008.
APA
D’Haeze, W., Gao, M., De Rycke, R., Van Montagu, M., Engler, G., & Holsters, M. (1998). Roles for azorhizobial Nod factors and surface polysaccharides in intercellular invasion and nodule penetration, respectively. MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS, 11(10), 999–1008.
Vancouver
1.
D’Haeze W, Gao M, De Rycke R, Van Montagu M, Engler G, Holsters M. Roles for azorhizobial Nod factors and surface polysaccharides in intercellular invasion and nodule penetration, respectively. MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS. 1998;11(10):999–1008.
MLA
D’Haeze, Wim, Mengsheng Gao, Riet De Rycke, et al. “Roles for Azorhizobial Nod Factors and Surface Polysaccharides in Intercellular Invasion and Nodule Penetration, Respectively.” MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS 11.10 (1998): 999–1008. Print.
@article{180158,
  abstract     = {In the symbiotic interaction between Azorhizobium caulinodans and Sesbania rostrata root and stem-borne nodules are formed. The bacteria enter the host via intercellular spaces at lateral or adventitious root bases and form infection pockets in outer cortical layers. Infection threads guide the bacteria to nodule primordia where plant cells are invaded. To identify bacterial functions that are required for this infection process, two mutants defective in nodulation were studied; one produced no Nod factors (nodA mutant), the other had altered surface polysaccharides (SPS) and induced the formation of pseudo-nodules, Bacteria were visualized with the help of a nodA-uidA reporter fusion that was functional during nodule development and in bacteroids. In contrast to the SPS mutant, nodA mutants were unable to colonize outer cortical regions. In mixed inoculations with both mutants, functional nodules were formed, the central tissue of which was occupied by the nodA mutant. These observations suggest that SPS play a role in deeper invasion and that Nod factors are necessary for entry. Simultaneous application of purified Nod factors and nodA mutant bacteria restored the formation of outer cortical infection pockets leading to the conclusion that intercellular infection is an active process that is dependent on bacterial Nod factor signaling.},
  author       = {D'Haeze, Wim and Gao, Mengsheng and De Rycke, Riet and Van Montagu, Marc and Engler, Gilbert and Holsters, Marcella},
  issn         = {0894-0282},
  journal      = {MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS},
  keyword      = {RHIZOBIUM-MELILOTI,BROAD HOST RANGE,SESBANIA-ROSTRATA,BETA-GLUCURONIDASE,CAULINODANS ORS571,NODULATION FACTORS,NITROGEN-FIXATION,STEM NODULES,VICIA-SATIVA,INFECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {999--1008},
  title        = {Roles for azorhizobial Nod factors and surface polysaccharides in intercellular invasion and nodule penetration, respectively},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.1998.11.10.999},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {1998},
}

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