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A TXRF and micro-Raman spectrometric reconstruction of palettes for distinguishing between scriptoria of related medieval manuscripts

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Abstract
Assigning related medieval manuscripts to different workshops on the basis of codicological characteristics, is not straightforward. We present the first attempt to distinguish between scriptoria by means of a large-scale total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis of pigment elements and an identification of pigment molecules with micro-Raman spectroscopy. We analyzed 324 colored items in 10 medieval manuscripts, of which 7 are folio-sized illuminated manuscripts, all ordered by Raphael de Mercatellis in the late 15th and early 16th century. Palettes in miniatures were not yet examined. Blue palettes are exclusively azurite-based and are easily differentiated by means of the respective amounts of Ti, Ba, and As. Differences for green palettes are also pronounced. The green Cu-based pigment was not yet identified, but it certainly is not malachite or verdigris. Red pigments used are HgS, vermilion, and Pb3O4, red lead. The Flemish gold-leaf technique is used. The 7 Mercatellis manuscripts show two different palettes, both different from the non-Mercatellis manuscripts. The grouping of the Mercatellis manuscripts according to date and to palettes is, in general, consistent with a grouping on the basis of a classical codicological analysis, although some conflicting results are obtained. A quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of palettes by means of TXRF- and Raman-spectra, provides with a complimentary and objective tool for distinguishing between scriptoria.
Keywords
azurite, gold initials, Middle Ages, pigments, micro-Ramanspectroscopy, TXRF, scriptoria, manuscripts, PIGMENTS, SPECTROSCOPY, X-RAY-FLUORESCENCE, SHROUD-OF-TURIN, codicology, Mercatellis, Renaissance, workshops

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Chicago
Van Hooydonk, Guido, Martine De Reu, Luc Moens, Joke Van Aelst, and Ludovicus Milis. 1998. “A TXRF and micro-Raman Spectrometric Reconstruction of Palettes for Distinguishing Between Scriptoria of Related Medieval Manuscripts.” European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 1998 (5): 639–644.
APA
Van Hooydonk, G., De Reu, M., Moens, L., Van Aelst, J., & Milis, L. (1998). A TXRF and micro-Raman spectrometric reconstruction of palettes for distinguishing between scriptoria of related medieval manuscripts. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 1998(5), 639–644.
Vancouver
1.
Van Hooydonk G, De Reu M, Moens L, Van Aelst J, Milis L. A TXRF and micro-Raman spectrometric reconstruction of palettes for distinguishing between scriptoria of related medieval manuscripts. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 1998;1998(5):639–44.
MLA
Van Hooydonk, Guido, Martine De Reu, Luc Moens, et al. “A TXRF and micro-Raman Spectrometric Reconstruction of Palettes for Distinguishing Between Scriptoria of Related Medieval Manuscripts.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1998.5 (1998): 639–644. Print.
@article{177957,
  abstract     = {Assigning related medieval manuscripts to different workshops on the basis of codicological characteristics, is not straightforward. We present the first attempt to distinguish between scriptoria by means of a large-scale total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis of pigment elements and an identification of pigment molecules with micro-Raman spectroscopy. We analyzed 324 colored items in 10 medieval manuscripts, of which 7 are folio-sized illuminated manuscripts, all ordered by Raphael de Mercatellis in the late 15th and early 16th century. Palettes in miniatures were not yet examined. Blue palettes are exclusively azurite-based and are easily differentiated by means of the respective amounts of Ti, Ba, and As. Differences for green palettes are also pronounced. The green Cu-based pigment was not yet identified, but it certainly is not malachite or verdigris. Red pigments used are HgS, vermilion, and Pb3O4, red lead. The Flemish gold-leaf technique is used. The 7 Mercatellis manuscripts show two different palettes, both different from the non-Mercatellis manuscripts. The grouping of the Mercatellis manuscripts according to date and to palettes is, in general, consistent with a grouping on the basis of a classical codicological analysis, although some conflicting results are obtained. A quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of palettes by means of TXRF- and Raman-spectra, provides with a complimentary and objective tool for distinguishing between scriptoria.},
  author       = {Van Hooydonk, Guido and De Reu, Martine and Moens, Luc and Van Aelst, Joke and Milis, Ludovicus},
  issn         = {1434-1948},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {639--644},
  title        = {A TXRF and micro-Raman spectrometric reconstruction of palettes for distinguishing between scriptoria of related medieval manuscripts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0682(199805)1998:5{\textlangle}639::AID-EJIC639{\textrangle}3.0.CO;2-Q},
  volume       = {1998},
  year         = {1998},
}

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