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Fate of fertiliser N applied to winter wheat growing on a Vertisol in a Mediterranean environment

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Abstract
A field study using (15)N was conducted on a Vertisol in semi-arid Morocco to assess the fate and efficiency of fertiliser N split applied to winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Splitting of fertiliser N is highly crucial in semiarid regions, considering the increased moisture stress towards the end of the growing season. A N fertilisation rate of 100 kg N ha(-1) was split according to two schemes: i) 25% at planting, 50% at tillering and 25% at stem elongation; or ii) 50% at tillering and 50% at stem elongation. The application of 100 kg N ha(-1) increased the vegetative dry matter production with more than 2000 kg dry matter ha(-1) in comparison with the control treatment. Nitrogen fertilisation had no significant effect on the grain yield production. Moreover, the 1000 grain weight decreased from 32 to 26 g due to N fertilisation. Total N uptake was about 50 kg N ha(-1) higher for the fertilised plants in comparison with the unfertilised plants, but it was not affected by the splitting pattern of the fertiliser N. Recoveries of (15)N-labelled fertiliser by the plant (above-ground plant parts plus roots from the upper 20 cm layer) were low (31% and 24% for the 3-split and 2-split application, respectively). More N in the plant was derived from fertiliser when applied early in the growing season than when applied late in the season. About 13% of the N in the plants was derived from the 50 kg N ha(-1) at tillering, while only 5% was derived from the N application (50 kg N ha(-1)) at stem elongation. At harvest, a high residual of fertiliser-derived N was found in the 0-90 cm profile (62% and 72%, for the 3-split and 2-split application, respectively). Less than 10% of the applied N could not be accounted for, the amount being highest for the application at tillering. This N not accounted for was mainly ascribed to denitrification after an important rainfall event. The application of fertiliser N led to an increase of about 20 kg N ha(-1) in soil N uptake by the crop (positive ANI). The results suggested a dominant influence of moisture availability on the fertiliser N uptake by wheat.
Keywords
added nitrogen interaction, fertiliser efficiency, residual fertiliser nitrogen, microplots, (15)N, nitrogen balance, nitrogen recovery, split application, RAINFED CONDITIONS, BARLEY PRODUCTION, AMMONIUM-NITRATE, SEMIARID REGION, NORTHERN SYRIA, SPRING WHEAT, NITROGEN, EFFICIENCY, SOIL, RECOVERY

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Chicago
Corbeels, M, Georges Hofman, and Oswald Van Cleemput. 1999. “Fate of Fertiliser N Applied to Winter Wheat Growing on a Vertisol in a Mediterranean Environment.” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 53 (3): 249–258.
APA
Corbeels, M, Hofman, G., & Van Cleemput, O. (1999). Fate of fertiliser N applied to winter wheat growing on a Vertisol in a Mediterranean environment. NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS, 53(3), 249–258.
Vancouver
1.
Corbeels M, Hofman G, Van Cleemput O. Fate of fertiliser N applied to winter wheat growing on a Vertisol in a Mediterranean environment. NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS. 1999;53(3):249–58.
MLA
Corbeels, M, Georges Hofman, and Oswald Van Cleemput. “Fate of Fertiliser N Applied to Winter Wheat Growing on a Vertisol in a Mediterranean Environment.” NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS 53.3 (1999): 249–258. Print.
@article{174575,
  abstract     = {A field study using (15)N was conducted on a Vertisol in semi-arid Morocco to assess the fate and efficiency of fertiliser N split applied to winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Splitting of fertiliser N is highly crucial in semiarid regions, considering the increased moisture stress towards the end of the growing season. A N fertilisation rate of 100 kg N ha(-1) was split according to two schemes: i) 25% at planting, 50% at tillering and 25% at stem elongation; or ii) 50% at tillering and 50% at stem elongation. The application of 100 kg N ha(-1) increased the vegetative dry matter production with more than 2000 kg dry matter ha(-1) in comparison with the control treatment. Nitrogen fertilisation had no significant effect on the grain yield production. Moreover, the 1000 grain weight decreased from 32 to 26 g due to N fertilisation. Total N uptake was about 50 kg N ha(-1) higher for the fertilised plants in comparison with the unfertilised plants, but it was not affected by the splitting pattern of the fertiliser N. Recoveries of (15)N-labelled fertiliser by the plant (above-ground plant parts plus roots from the upper 20 cm layer) were low (31% and 24% for the 3-split and 2-split application, respectively). More N in the plant was derived from fertiliser when applied early in the growing season than when applied late in the season. About 13% of the N in the plants was derived from the 50 kg N ha(-1) at tillering, while only 5% was derived from the N application (50 kg N ha(-1)) at stem elongation. At harvest, a high residual of fertiliser-derived N was found in the 0-90 cm profile (62% and 72%, for the 3-split and 2-split application, respectively). Less than 10% of the applied N could not be accounted for, the amount being highest for the application at tillering. This N not accounted for was mainly ascribed to denitrification after an important rainfall event. The application of fertiliser N led to an increase of about 20 kg N ha(-1) in soil N uptake by the crop (positive ANI). The results suggested a dominant influence of moisture availability on the fertiliser N uptake by wheat.},
  author       = {Corbeels, M and Hofman, Georges and Van Cleemput, Oswald},
  issn         = {1385-1314},
  journal      = {NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS},
  keywords     = {added nitrogen interaction,fertiliser efficiency,residual fertiliser nitrogen,microplots,(15)N,nitrogen balance,nitrogen recovery,split application,RAINFED CONDITIONS,BARLEY PRODUCTION,AMMONIUM-NITRATE,SEMIARID REGION,NORTHERN SYRIA,SPRING WHEAT,NITROGEN,EFFICIENCY,SOIL,RECOVERY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {249--258},
  title        = {Fate of fertiliser N applied to winter wheat growing on a Vertisol in a Mediterranean environment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009780703738},
  volume       = {53},
  year         = {1999},
}

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