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Hergebruik van water en nutriënten uit mest- en digestaatverwerking

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Currently it is technically and economically feasible to convert animal manure into dischargeable water according to the Flemish legislation for discharge in surface waters (VLAREM). This can be achieved by the use of constructed wetlands (Innova Manure) following biological treatment or by intensive membrane filtration following biodigestion (for example Eneco Energy/Eco-Projects). This thesis is focussed on the further sustainability of both processes by creating a local ‘closed’ cycle of nutrients and water (cfr. ‘cradleto- cradle’). The first part of this thesis explores the reuse of nutrients originating from digestate processing. The post processing of digestate typically generates a wide range of derivatives, such as thick fractions coming from separation technologies, liquid concentrates coming from membrane filtration technologies and waste streams coming from gas scrubbers. These derivatives from digestate processing could potentially be used as a fertilizer, thereby providing an alternative for artificial manure. Though, research for the composition and the properties of these streams is required. In this thesis an exploratory examination was performed in aim to provide insights in the agricultural and economical value of these derivatives. Therefore these streams, all originating from the Eneco Energy/Eco-Projects biogas plants, were frequently sampled and physicochemically characterized. Our results show that mixing of the concentrate coming from first filtration steps with the thick fraction of the digestate and the further processing into a dry, pasteurized and phosphorous rich end product, is currently the most attractive option. Furthermore, a mix of the acidic water from gas scrubbers with the alkaline water and the concentrate coming from second filtration steps, could potentially be recognized as an ‘artificial manure’/’other fertilizer’. Further profound research is required to explore the most economically interesting digestate processing technologies, taking in account the physicochemical composition of the produced derivatives and their impact on soil structure, soil fertility and soil quality. The second and most important part of this thesis is focussed on the possibility to reuse the end water coming from manure and digestate processing. The increasing water shortage, the price-rise of tap water and the run-down of permissions for the use of subsoil water, makes water supply for agriculture one of the most important challenges for the near future. At present purified agricultural wastewater is only scarcely used on the farm or in the industry. The reliable reuse of dischargeable end water originating from manure and digestate processing for both low valuable applications (for example cleaning water, cooling water) and high valuable applications (for example potable water for the animals, irrigation water for the horticulture) could therefore add extra value to the Flemish agriculture both economically as ecologically. In this thesis the quality of the end water originating from five Innova Manure plants and two Eneco Energy/Eco-Projects biogas plants were characterized physicochemically and bacteriologically over a period of approximately one year. The variability of the quality in time as well as between different plants/processes were investigated and compared to the quality requirements for the different agricultural applications of water reuse. Bottlenecks in the upgrade to reusable water were indicated, relevant post processing technologies were lined up and experiments (lab, pilot and greenhouse) aimed at improving the quality of the effluents were set up. Quantitative insights were acquired by spreading a postal survey at the different Innova Manure plants. During the research period, the biogas plants were still in upgrade and could therefore not yet create a continuous and representative source of water. In contrast, constructed wetlands produced a continuous source of water with promising quality for both low valuable and high valuable applications. Carbon components, salts, total hardness and iron were the most important physicochemical bottlenecks in the upgrade to potable water. Bacteriological bottlenecks in the upgrade to potable water were Clostridium perfringens and sulphite reducing Clostridia. As the presence of recalcitrant organic material (COD) in the constructed wetlands effluent was considered as an important bottleneck for reuse, research was performed to reduce the COD thus improving the effluent quality. More specific a chemical experiment based on the use of calciumoxide (CaO), a biological experiment based on the use of submerged plants and a physical-biological experiment based on the use of aerobic bio-filters were performed. Based on our results, the CaOtreatment appears to be the most cost effective and reliable technique, because this product didn’t only cause a significant effect on COD, but also on the contents of magnesium, total hardness and iron. Based on all data obtained in the research period, the following path for reuse of the effluent as a potable water source for pigs has been proposed by way of a case-study for the Innova Manure site in Langemark: dilution of the effluent with the available open well water, treatment with CaO and last an acidic dosage for preventive hygienisation and pH-neutralization. Finally in this thesis also research was performed to investigate the potential use of Phragmites australis, originating from the harvesting of constructed wetlands, as a sustainable source of energy by biodigestion. Hereby it is important to notice that the use of biomass for digestion implies the transfer of nutrients and difficult biodegradable organic matter into the digestate. The digestate could then potentially be reused as a fertilizer/soil amendment, which again results in a ‘closed’ cycle of nutrients. The biogas production and the withdrawal capacity of P. australis have been explored on two different points in time, respectively based on biogas-batchtests and physicochemical characterization. P. australis showed a similar biogas production to energy maize and the biogas production and nutrient contents were significantly higher for an early harvest. Further research is however required to verify these results. Based on the ‘cradle-to-cradle’ principle, our results have shown that there are perspectives to reuse the end water originating from constructed wetlands, to digest the harvested biomass and to upgrade derivatives coming from digestate processing into fertilizers/soil amendments. This path should be investigated in the following research years.
Keywords
waterkwaliteit, hergebruik, nutriënten, digestaatverwerking, mestverwerking

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Vaneeckhaute, Céline. 2010. “Hergebruik Van Water En Nutriënten Uit Mest- En Digestaatverwerking.” In Academia Meets Industry, Abstracts. Vlaams Netwerk Watertechnologie (TNAV).
APA
Vaneeckhaute, C. (2010). Hergebruik van water en nutriënten uit mest- en digestaatverwerking. Academia Meets Industry, Abstracts. Presented at the Academia Meets Industry, Vlaams Netwerk Watertechnologie (TNAV).
Vancouver
1.
Vaneeckhaute C. Hergebruik van water en nutriënten uit mest- en digestaatverwerking. Academia Meets Industry, Abstracts. Vlaams Netwerk Watertechnologie (TNAV); 2010.
MLA
Vaneeckhaute, Céline. “Hergebruik Van Water En Nutriënten Uit Mest- En Digestaatverwerking.” Academia Meets Industry, Abstracts. Vlaams Netwerk Watertechnologie (TNAV), 2010. Print.
@inproceedings{1579028,
  abstract     = {Currently it is technically and economically feasible to convert animal manure into dischargeable water according to the Flemish legislation for discharge in surface waters (VLAREM). This can be achieved by the use of constructed wetlands (Innova Manure) following biological treatment or by intensive membrane filtration following biodigestion (for example Eneco Energy/Eco-Projects). 
This thesis is focussed on the further sustainability of both processes by creating a local {\textquoteleft}closed{\textquoteright} cycle of nutrients and water (cfr. {\textquoteleft}cradleto- cradle{\textquoteright}).
The first part of this thesis explores the reuse of nutrients originating from digestate processing. The post processing of digestate typically generates a wide range of derivatives, such as thick fractions coming from separation technologies, liquid concentrates coming from membrane filtration technologies and waste streams coming from gas scrubbers. These derivatives from digestate processing could potentially be used as a fertilizer, thereby providing an alternative for artificial manure. Though, research for the composition and the properties of these streams is required. In this thesis an exploratory examination was performed in aim to provide insights in the agricultural and economical value of these derivatives. Therefore these streams, all originating from the Eneco Energy/Eco-Projects biogas plants, were frequently sampled and physicochemically characterized. Our results show that mixing of the concentrate coming from first filtration steps with the thick fraction of the digestate and the further processing into a dry, pasteurized and phosphorous rich end product, is currently the most attractive option. Furthermore, a mix of the acidic water from gas scrubbers with the alkaline water and the concentrate coming from second filtration steps, could potentially be recognized as an {\textquoteleft}artificial manure{\textquoteright}/{\textquoteright}other fertilizer{\textquoteright}. Further profound research is required to explore the most economically interesting digestate processing technologies, taking in account the physicochemical composition of the produced derivatives and their impact on soil structure, soil fertility and soil quality.
The second and most important part of this thesis is focussed on the possibility to reuse the end water coming from manure and digestate processing. The increasing water shortage, the price-rise of tap water and the run-down of permissions for the use of subsoil water, makes water supply for agriculture one of the most important challenges for the near future. At present purified agricultural wastewater is only scarcely used on the farm or in the industry. The reliable reuse of dischargeable end water originating from manure and digestate processing for both low valuable applications (for example cleaning water, cooling water) and high valuable applications (for example potable water for the animals, irrigation water for the horticulture) could therefore add extra value to the Flemish agriculture both economically as ecologically. 
In this thesis the quality of the end water originating from five Innova Manure plants and two Eneco Energy/Eco-Projects biogas plants were characterized physicochemically and bacteriologically over a period of approximately one year. The variability of the quality in time as well as between different plants/processes were investigated and compared to the quality requirements for the different agricultural applications of water reuse. Bottlenecks in the upgrade to reusable water were indicated, relevant post processing technologies were lined up and experiments (lab, pilot and greenhouse) aimed at improving the quality of the effluents were set up. Quantitative insights were acquired by spreading a postal survey at the different Innova Manure plants.
During the research period, the biogas plants were still in upgrade and could therefore not yet create a continuous and representative source of water. In contrast, constructed wetlands produced a continuous source of water with promising quality for both low valuable and high valuable applications. Carbon components, salts, total hardness and iron were the most important physicochemical bottlenecks in the upgrade to potable water. Bacteriological bottlenecks in the upgrade to potable water were Clostridium perfringens and sulphite reducing Clostridia.
As the presence of recalcitrant organic material (COD) in the constructed wetlands effluent was considered as an important bottleneck for reuse, research was performed to reduce the COD thus improving the effluent quality. More specific a chemical experiment based on the use of calciumoxide (CaO), a biological experiment based on the use of submerged plants and a physical-biological experiment based on the use of aerobic bio-filters were performed. Based on our results, the CaOtreatment appears to be the most cost effective and reliable technique, because this product didn{\textquoteright}t only cause a significant effect on COD, but also on the contents of magnesium, total hardness and iron. Based on all data obtained in the research period, the following path for reuse of the effluent as a potable water source for pigs has been proposed by way of a case-study for the Innova Manure site in Langemark: dilution of the effluent with the available open well water, treatment with CaO and last an acidic dosage for preventive hygienisation and pH-neutralization.
Finally in this thesis also research was performed to investigate the potential use of Phragmites australis, originating from the harvesting of constructed wetlands, as a sustainable source of energy by biodigestion. Hereby it is important to notice that the use of biomass for digestion implies the transfer of nutrients and difficult biodegradable organic matter into the digestate. The digestate could then potentially be reused as a fertilizer/soil amendment, which again results in a {\textquoteleft}closed{\textquoteright} cycle of nutrients. The biogas production and the withdrawal capacity of P. australis have been explored on two different points in time, respectively based on biogas-batchtests and physicochemical characterization. P. australis showed a similar biogas production to energy maize and the biogas production and nutrient contents were significantly higher for an early harvest. Further research is however required to verify these results. Based on the {\textquoteleft}cradle-to-cradle{\textquoteright} principle, our results have shown that there are perspectives to reuse the end water originating from constructed wetlands, to digest the harvested biomass and to upgrade derivatives coming from digestate processing into fertilizers/soil amendments. This path should be investigated in the following research years.},
  author       = {Vaneeckhaute, C{\'e}line},
  booktitle    = {Academia Meets Industry, Abstracts},
  keyword      = {waterkwaliteit,hergebruik,nutri{\"e}nten,digestaatverwerking,mestverwerking},
  language     = {dut},
  location     = {Kortrijk},
  publisher    = {Vlaams Netwerk Watertechnologie (TNAV)},
  title        = {Hergebruik van water en nutri{\"e}nten uit mest- en digestaatverwerking},
  url          = {http://www.tnav.be/NL/index.php?page=91\&detail=1639\&lkz=1},
  year         = {2010},
}