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Non destructive analysis of the wax layer of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy

(2001) PLANTA. 213(4). p.525-533
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Abstract
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to non-destructively analyse the changes in the structure and thickness of the cuticle during storage of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Interpretation of the confocal images was performed by comparison with scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy images. The natural reflectance of the wax and the auto-fluorescence of the underlying cells made it possible with CLSM to distinguish the wax from the underlying layers without any pretreatment of the fruit. The thickness of the consecutive layers (wax, cutin, cells) could be estimated from measurements of the reflection and fluorescence intensities as a function of the number of pixels. The mean wax-layer thickness measured in this way amounted to 2.58 mum, 3.41 mum or 4.14 mum for the cultivars Jonagold, Jonagored and Elstar, respectively. Changes in the wax structure and cells of the same important Belgian apple cultivars as mentioned above were monitored during nine months of storage in ultra low oxygen and after exposure to ambient conditions. The changes in the wax ultrastructure and cell morphology are likely related to water losses and specific protection of the apple cultivars against water losses during storage and shelf life.
Keywords
fruit storage, MUTANTS, cuticle, Malus (wax), wax (ultrastructure), GOLDEN DELICIOUS APPLES, EPICUTICULAR WAX, PLANT CUTICLES, EPIDERMAL CONDUCTANCE, SORGHUM-BICOLOR, CALCIUM-UPTAKE, WATER-VAPOR, STOMATA, FRUIT

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Citation

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Chicago
Veraverbeke, Els A, Nathalie Van Bruaene, Patric Van Oostveldt, and Bart M Nicolaï. 2001. “Non Destructive Analysis of the Wax Layer of Apple (Malus Domestica Borkh.) by Means of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.” Planta 213 (4): 525–533.
APA
Veraverbeke, E. A., Van Bruaene, N., Van Oostveldt, P., & Nicolaï, B. M. (2001). Non destructive analysis of the wax layer of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. PLANTA, 213(4), 525–533.
Vancouver
1.
Veraverbeke EA, Van Bruaene N, Van Oostveldt P, Nicolaï BM. Non destructive analysis of the wax layer of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. PLANTA. 2001;213(4):525–33.
MLA
Veraverbeke, Els A, Nathalie Van Bruaene, Patric Van Oostveldt, et al. “Non Destructive Analysis of the Wax Layer of Apple (Malus Domestica Borkh.) by Means of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.” PLANTA 213.4 (2001): 525–533. Print.
@article{148470,
  abstract     = {Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to non-destructively analyse the changes in the structure and thickness of the cuticle during storage of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Interpretation of the confocal images was performed by comparison with scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy images. The natural reflectance of the wax and the auto-fluorescence of the underlying cells made it possible with CLSM to distinguish the wax from the underlying layers without any pretreatment of the fruit. The thickness of the consecutive layers (wax, cutin, cells) could be estimated from measurements of the reflection and fluorescence intensities as a function of the number of pixels. The mean wax-layer thickness measured in this way amounted to 2.58 mum, 3.41 mum or 4.14 mum for the cultivars Jonagold, Jonagored and Elstar, respectively. Changes in the wax structure and cells of the same important Belgian apple cultivars as mentioned above were monitored during nine months of storage in ultra low oxygen and after exposure to ambient conditions. The changes in the wax ultrastructure and cell morphology are likely related to water losses and specific protection of the apple cultivars against water losses during storage and shelf life.},
  author       = {Veraverbeke, Els A and Van Bruaene, Nathalie and Van Oostveldt, Patric and Nicola{\"i}, Bart M},
  issn         = {0032-0935},
  journal      = {PLANTA},
  keyword      = {fruit storage,MUTANTS,cuticle,Malus (wax),wax (ultrastructure),GOLDEN DELICIOUS APPLES,EPICUTICULAR WAX,PLANT CUTICLES,EPIDERMAL CONDUCTANCE,SORGHUM-BICOLOR,CALCIUM-UPTAKE,WATER-VAPOR,STOMATA,FRUIT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {525--533},
  title        = {Non destructive analysis of the wax layer of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004250100528},
  volume       = {213},
  year         = {2001},
}

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