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Immunological aspects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins.

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Abstract
The incidence of severe cases of acute E. coli mastitis in dairy cows is highest during early lactation. This phenomenon has been associated with a decreased function and decreased numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN). The cause of this impaired function and decreased number is poorly understood. Stress, hormonal and metabolic alterations around parturition and the onset of lactation may play a role in this phenomenon. Several molecules, such as cortisol and beta-hydroxybutyrate have been found to alter the oxidative burst activity of circulating PMN around parturition. Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (bPAG) could also be involved. The theory of immunosuppression by bPAG was investigated because analogous glycoproteins produced by the placenta of other species exert local immunosuppression in order to maintain the histoincompatible feto-maternal unit. The production and subsequent release into the maternal circulation of bPAG is ensured by the binucleate cells from the trophoblast and starts already at implantation. However, peak levels are only reached 1 week before parturition. Due to the long half-life time of this molecule, high levels are found in plasma until 2 weeks after calving. The co-occurrence of the impairment of PMN oxidative burst activity in the early postpartum period and a peak in plasma bPAG concentrations might support the hypothesis of an immunosuppressive effect of PAG. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of bPAG on the proliferation of bovine bone marrow progenitor cells has been found recently in our laboratory. bPAG occurs in colostrum, but its effect on milk cells has not been clarified. It is concluded that interaction between the physiology of reproduction and lactation on the one side and immune function on the other side in dairy cattle requires further research.
Keywords
PROTEIN-B, pregnancy associated glycoproteins, BOVINE, FAMILY, LEUKOCYTE, DIAGNOSIS, MEMBERS, MASTITIS, CATTLE, ASSAY, SERUM

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Chicago
Dosogne, Hilde, AM Massart-Leën, and Christian Burvenich. 2000. “Immunological Aspects of Pregnancy-associated Glycoproteins.” Ed. JA Mol and RA Clegg. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 480: 295–305.
APA
Dosogne, Hilde, Massart-Leën, A., & Burvenich, C. (2000). Immunological aspects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. (JA Mol & R. Clegg, Eds.)ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, 480, 295–305. Presented at the European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST 825)/ 1st International Conference on the Biology of the Mammary Gland.
Vancouver
1.
Dosogne H, Massart-Leën A, Burvenich C. Immunological aspects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Mol J, Clegg R, editors. ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. 2000;480:295–305.
MLA
Dosogne, Hilde, AM Massart-Leën, and Christian Burvenich. “Immunological Aspects of Pregnancy-associated Glycoproteins.” Ed. JA Mol & RA Clegg. ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY 480 (2000): 295–305. Print.
@article{131464,
  abstract     = {The incidence of severe cases of acute E. coli mastitis in dairy cows is highest during early lactation. This phenomenon has been associated with a decreased function and decreased numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN). The cause of this impaired function and decreased number is poorly understood. Stress, hormonal and metabolic alterations around parturition and the onset of lactation may play a role in this phenomenon. Several molecules, such as cortisol and beta-hydroxybutyrate have been found to alter the oxidative burst activity of circulating PMN around parturition. Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (bPAG) could also be involved. The theory of immunosuppression by bPAG was investigated because analogous glycoproteins produced by the placenta of other species exert local immunosuppression in order to maintain the histoincompatible feto-maternal unit. The production and subsequent release into the maternal circulation of bPAG is ensured by the binucleate cells from the trophoblast and starts already at implantation. However, peak levels are only reached 1 week before parturition. Due to the long half-life time of this molecule, high levels are found in plasma until 2 weeks after calving. The co-occurrence of the impairment of PMN oxidative burst activity in the early postpartum period and a peak in plasma bPAG concentrations might support the hypothesis of an immunosuppressive effect of PAG. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of bPAG on the proliferation of bovine bone marrow progenitor cells has been found recently in our laboratory. bPAG occurs in colostrum, but its effect on milk cells has not been clarified. It is concluded that interaction between the physiology of reproduction and lactation on the one side and immune function on the other side in dairy cattle requires further research.},
  author       = {Dosogne, Hilde and Massart-Le{\"e}n, AM and Burvenich, Christian},
  editor       = {Mol, JA and Clegg, RA},
  isbn         = {0-306-46414-4},
  issn         = {0065-2598},
  journal      = {ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {PROTEIN-B,pregnancy associated glycoproteins,BOVINE,FAMILY,LEUKOCYTE,DIAGNOSIS,MEMBERS,MASTITIS,CATTLE,ASSAY,SERUM},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Tours, France},
  pages        = {295--305},
  title        = {Immunological aspects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins.},
  volume       = {480},
  year         = {2000},
}

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