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Comparison of batch mode and dynamic physiologically based bioaccessibility tests for PAHs in soil samples

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Abstract
A fed state in vitro methodology capable of use in commercial testing laboratories has been developed for measuring the human ingestion bioaccessibility of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil (Fed ORganic Estimation human Simulation Test-FOREhST). The protocol for measuring PAHs in the simulated gastro-intestinal fluids used methanolic KOH saponification followed by a combination of polymeric sorbent solid phase extraction and silica sorbent cartridges for sample cleanup and preconcentration. The analysis was carried out using high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The repeatability of the method, assessed by the measurement of the bioaccessibility of 6 PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-c, d]pyrene) in eleven gas works soils, was 10% RSD. The method compared well with the results from an independent dynamic human simulation reactor comprising of the stomach, duodenal and colon compartments tested on the same soils. The measured bioaccessible fraction of the soils varied from 10-60% for soils containing 10-300 mg kg(-1) PAH (the sum of the six studied) with total organic carbon concentrations in the soils ranging from 1-13%. A multiple regression model showed that the PAH bioaccessible fraction could be explained using the PAH compound, the soil type and the total PAH to soil organic carbon content The method described here has potential for site specific detailed quantitative risk assessment either to modify the risk estimation or to contribute to the risk evaluation.
Keywords
BIOAVAILABILITY, CONTAMINATED SOIL, LEAD, EXPOSURE, MOBILIZATION, VALIDATION, RELEASE, IN-VITRO DIGESTION, INTESTINAL MICROBIAL ECOSYSTEM, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS

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Chicago
Cave, Mark R, Joanna Wragg, Ian Harrison, Christopher H Vane, Tom Van de Wiele, Eva De Groeve, C Paul Nathanail, et al. 2010. “Comparison of Batch Mode and Dynamic Physiologically Based Bioaccessibility Tests for PAHs in Soil Samples.” Environmental Science & Technology 44 (7): 2654–2660.
APA
Cave, M. R., Wragg, J., Harrison, I., Vane, C. H., Van de Wiele, T., De Groeve, E., Nathanail, C. P., et al. (2010). Comparison of batch mode and dynamic physiologically based bioaccessibility tests for PAHs in soil samples. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 44(7), 2654–2660.
Vancouver
1.
Cave MR, Wragg J, Harrison I, Vane CH, Van de Wiele T, De Groeve E, et al. Comparison of batch mode and dynamic physiologically based bioaccessibility tests for PAHs in soil samples. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2010;44(7):2654–60.
MLA
Cave, Mark R, Joanna Wragg, Ian Harrison, et al. “Comparison of Batch Mode and Dynamic Physiologically Based Bioaccessibility Tests for PAHs in Soil Samples.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 44.7 (2010): 2654–2660. Print.
@article{1268506,
  abstract     = {A fed state in vitro methodology capable of use in commercial testing laboratories has been developed for measuring the human ingestion bioaccessibility of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil (Fed ORganic Estimation human Simulation Test-FOREhST). The protocol for measuring PAHs in the simulated gastro-intestinal fluids used methanolic KOH saponification followed by a combination of polymeric sorbent solid phase extraction and silica sorbent cartridges for sample cleanup and preconcentration. The analysis was carried out using high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The repeatability of the method, assessed by the measurement of the bioaccessibility of 6 PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-c, d]pyrene) in eleven gas works soils, was 10\% RSD. The method compared well with the results from an independent dynamic human simulation reactor comprising of the stomach, duodenal and colon compartments tested on the same soils. The measured bioaccessible fraction of the soils varied from 10-60\% for soils containing 10-300 mg kg(-1) PAH (the sum of the six studied) with total organic carbon concentrations in the soils ranging from 1-13\%. A multiple regression model showed that the PAH bioaccessible fraction could be explained using the PAH compound, the soil type and the total PAH to soil organic carbon content The method described here has potential for site specific detailed quantitative risk assessment either to modify the risk estimation or to contribute to the risk evaluation.},
  author       = {Cave, Mark R and Wragg, Joanna and Harrison, Ian and Vane, Christopher H and Van de Wiele, Tom and De Groeve, Eva and Nathanail, C Paul and Ashmore, Matthew and Thomas, Russell and Robinson, Jamie and Daly, Paddy},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE \& TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {BIOAVAILABILITY,CONTAMINATED SOIL,LEAD,EXPOSURE,MOBILIZATION,VALIDATION,RELEASE,IN-VITRO DIGESTION,INTESTINAL MICROBIAL ECOSYSTEM,POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {2654--2660},
  title        = {Comparison of batch mode and dynamic physiologically based bioaccessibility tests for PAHs in soil samples},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903258v},
  volume       = {44},
  year         = {2010},
}

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