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Exploring the relationship between offending and victimization: what is the role of risky lifestyles and low self-control?: a test in two urban samples

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Abstract
The present study explores the strength of the relationship between offending and victimization among young adolescents. We focus especially on the role background characteristics such as gender, immigrant background and family structure and causal mechanisms such as risky lifestyles and low self-control as many scholars have argued that the correlation between offending and victimization may be caused by common characteristics of offenders and victims. The article build upon two large-scale self-reported delinquency studies in Sint-Niklaas (Belgium) and Halmstad (Sweden). The correlation between offending and victimization is strong, even when controlling for demographics, lifestyles and low self-control. However, the lifestyle and low self-control model predicts offending better than victimization and the independent effect of offending on victimization is larger than the independent effect of victimization of offending. The same pattern is found in both samples, suggesting the stability of findings. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords
Low self-control, Lifestyle risk, Offending, Victimization, HIRSCHIS GENERAL-THEORY, VIOLENCE, GOTTFREDSON, CRIME, EXPOSURE, CHILDREN

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Chicago
Pauwels, Lieven, and Robert Svensson. 2011. “Exploring the Relationship Between Offending and Victimization: What Is the Role of Risky Lifestyles and Low Self-control?: a Test in Two Urban Samples.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 17 (3): 163–177.
APA
Pauwels, Lieven, & Svensson, R. (2011). Exploring the relationship between offending and victimization: what is the role of risky lifestyles and low self-control?: a test in two urban samples. EUROPEAN JOURNAL ON CRIMINAL POLICY AND RESEARCH, 17(3), 163–177.
Vancouver
1.
Pauwels L, Svensson R. Exploring the relationship between offending and victimization: what is the role of risky lifestyles and low self-control?: a test in two urban samples. EUROPEAN JOURNAL ON CRIMINAL POLICY AND RESEARCH. 2011;17(3):163–77.
MLA
Pauwels, Lieven, and Robert Svensson. “Exploring the Relationship Between Offending and Victimization: What Is the Role of Risky Lifestyles and Low Self-control?: a Test in Two Urban Samples.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL ON CRIMINAL POLICY AND RESEARCH 17.3 (2011): 163–177. Print.
@article{1261792,
  abstract     = {The present study explores the strength of the relationship between offending and victimization among young adolescents. We focus especially on the role background characteristics such as gender, immigrant background and family structure and causal mechanisms such as risky lifestyles and low self-control as many scholars have argued that the correlation between offending and victimization may be caused by common characteristics of offenders and victims. The article build upon two large-scale self-reported delinquency studies in Sint-Niklaas (Belgium) and Halmstad (Sweden). The correlation between offending and victimization is strong, even when controlling for demographics, lifestyles and low self-control. However, the lifestyle and low self-control model predicts offending better than victimization and the independent effect of offending on victimization is larger than the independent effect of victimization of offending. The same pattern is found in both samples, suggesting the stability of findings. The implications of these findings are discussed.},
  author       = {Pauwels, Lieven and Svensson, Robert},
  issn         = {0928-1371},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL ON CRIMINAL POLICY AND RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Low self-control,Lifestyle risk,Offending,Victimization,HIRSCHIS GENERAL-THEORY,VIOLENCE,GOTTFREDSON,CRIME,EXPOSURE,CHILDREN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {163--177},
  title        = {Exploring the relationship between offending and victimization: what is the role of risky lifestyles and low self-control?: a test in two urban samples},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10610-011-9150-2},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2011},
}

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