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A geostatistical two-phase sampling strategy to map soil heavy metal concentrations in a former war zone

Eef Meerschman UGent, Liesbet Cockx UGent and Marc Van Meirvenne UGent (2011) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE. 62(3). p.408-416
abstract
In a recent paper it was concluded that an enrichment of copper (Cu) content by 6 mg kg-1 dry mass in the soil around Ypres (Belgium) was a legacy of shelling during the First World War. This conclusion was based on a regional database of the entire province of West-Flanders (3144 km2) containing a limited number of soil samples in the war zone. Shells partly consisted of an alloy of Cu and zinc (Zn), and shrapnel balls were made out of lead (Pb). We expanded the database with a two-phase sampling design, each of 100 samples, in the war zone surrounding Ypres (640 km2) to (i) increase the detail of the inventory and (ii) expand the database to include Cu, Pb and Zn. This article focuses on the geostatistical selection of additional sampling locations. As the enrichment was spatially continuous and our aim was to map accurately over the range of values, rather than to delineate the enriched area, conventional selection criteria based on the probability of exceeding a critical threshold were not suitable. Therefore the sampling locations were optimized using a combination of selection criteria based on the kriging variance, the conditional variance and the conditional coefficient of variation obtained with sequential Gaussian simulation. A jackknife validation with 102 independent observations indicated the improvement after each phase. Additionally, the local uncertainty maps tended to show reduced values and a more homogenous pattern as additional samples were added. In an overview of the final prediction maps for Cu, Pb and Zn it is clear that those for Cu and Pb reflect the position of the main front line.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
UNCERTAINTY, INTERPOLATION, SITE
journal title
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE
Eur. J. Soil Sci.
volume
62
issue
3
pages
408 - 416
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000290982200008
JCR category
SOIL SCIENCE
JCR impact factor
2.34 (2011)
JCR rank
5/32 (2011)
JCR quartile
1 (2011)
ISSN
1351-0754
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2389.2011.01366.x
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1260389
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1260389
date created
2011-06-10 16:10:49
date last changed
2011-06-20 10:29:47
@article{1260389,
  abstract     = {In a recent paper it was concluded that an enrichment of copper (Cu) content by 6 mg kg-1 dry mass in the soil around Ypres (Belgium) was a legacy of shelling during the First World War. This conclusion was based on a regional database of the entire province of West-Flanders (3144 km2) containing a limited number of soil samples in the war zone. Shells partly consisted of an alloy of Cu and zinc (Zn), and shrapnel balls were made out of lead (Pb). We expanded the database with a two-phase sampling design, each of 100 samples, in the war zone surrounding Ypres (640 km2) to (i) increase the detail of the inventory and (ii) expand the database to include Cu, Pb and Zn. This article focuses on the geostatistical selection of additional sampling locations. As the enrichment was spatially continuous and our aim was to map accurately over the range of values, rather than to delineate the enriched area, conventional selection criteria based on the probability of exceeding a critical threshold were not suitable. Therefore the sampling locations were optimized using a combination of selection criteria based on the kriging variance, the conditional variance and the conditional coefficient of variation obtained with sequential Gaussian simulation. A jackknife validation with 102 independent observations indicated the improvement after each phase. Additionally, the local uncertainty maps tended to show reduced values and a more homogenous pattern as additional samples were added. In an overview of the final prediction maps for Cu, Pb and Zn it is clear that those for Cu and Pb reflect the position of the main front line.},
  author       = {Meerschman, Eef and Cockx, Liesbet and Van Meirvenne, Marc},
  issn         = {1351-0754},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {UNCERTAINTY,INTERPOLATION,SITE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {408--416},
  title        = {A geostatistical two-phase sampling strategy to map soil heavy metal concentrations in a former war zone},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2011.01366.x},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Meerschman, Eef, Liesbet Cockx, and Marc Van Meirvenne. 2011. “A Geostatistical Two-phase Sampling Strategy to Map Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations in a Former War Zone.” European Journal of Soil Science 62 (3): 408–416.
APA
Meerschman, E., Cockx, L., & Van Meirvenne, M. (2011). A geostatistical two-phase sampling strategy to map soil heavy metal concentrations in a former war zone. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 62(3), 408–416.
Vancouver
1.
Meerschman E, Cockx L, Van Meirvenne M. A geostatistical two-phase sampling strategy to map soil heavy metal concentrations in a former war zone. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE. 2011;62(3):408–16.
MLA
Meerschman, Eef, Liesbet Cockx, and Marc Van Meirvenne. “A Geostatistical Two-phase Sampling Strategy to Map Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations in a Former War Zone.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE 62.3 (2011): 408–416. Print.