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Survival of parasitic nematodes outside the host

Roland Perry and Maurice Moens UGent (2011) Molecular and physiological basis of nematode survival. p.1-27
abstract
The life cycle of parasitic nematodes essentially consists of two phases, the preparasitic and parasitic. The pre-parasitic phase, which may equate to the infective stage, occurs either as a free-living stage or inside, or transported by, an interrnediate host. On locating and invading the definitive host, the parasitic phase commences. For obligate parasitic species there are situations where persistence of a population requires survival of the free-living stages. This may occur when the host is not available or environmental conditions exist that are not commensurate with continuing development. The requirements, first, to survive long enough to infect a host and, second, to ensure the survival of progeny when the host is no longer supportive, are the essential non-parasitic tasks of the life cycle. Survival of adverse environmental conditions may involve enduring temperature extremes (see Wharton, Chapter 8, and Devaney, Chapter 10, this volume), osmotic stress (see Wharton and Perry, Chapter 11, this volume) and dehydration, in addition to withstanding the absence of food. The ability of some species of nematode to survive desiccation for periods considerably in excess of the duration of the normal life cycle has been studied in detail, in part because in species with a direct life cyele this attribute is hnked to effective dispersion of nematodes. In the past, research has focused primarily on the remarkable structural, physiological and behavioural adaptations that facilitate desiccation survival (Perry, 1999). However, more recently the molecular aspects have received considerable attention, and these ar reviewed by Burnell and Tunnaeliffe, Chapter 6, and Adhikari émd Adams, Chapter 9, this volume. In this chapter, we examine the morphologicaI, physiological and behavioural adaptations, focusing principallyon desiccation survival and the link to nematode dispersion. This link and the need to understand the temporaI factors involved in survival are elearly vital for effective management and control ophons for parasitic nematodes. The pre-adult stages of nematodes are ca lied juveniles by plant nematolof ogists, and the term infective juvenile (IJ) is favoured by researchers working with entomopathogenic nematodes. However, the term larva(e) is the term of choice for animal nematologists and the Caenorhabditis efegans community. To ensure consistency throughout this chapter, larva(e) will be used.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
bookChapter
publication status
published
subject
book title
Molecular and physiological basis of nematode survival
editor
Roland N Perry and David A Wharton
pages
1 - 27
publisher
CABI Publishing
ISBN
9781845935719
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
B2
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1252895
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1252895
date created
2011-06-06 13:47:47
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:41:28
@incollection{1252895,
  abstract     = {The life cycle of parasitic nematodes essentially consists of two phases, the preparasitic and parasitic. The pre-parasitic phase, which may equate to the infective stage, occurs either as a free-living stage or inside, or transported by, an interrnediate host. On locating and invading the definitive host, the parasitic phase commences. For obligate parasitic species there are situations where persistence of a population requires survival of the free-living stages. This may occur when the host is not available or environmental conditions exist that are not commensurate with continuing development. The requirements, first, to survive long enough to infect a host and, second, to ensure the survival of progeny when the host is no longer supportive, are the essential non-parasitic tasks of the life cycle. Survival of adverse environmental conditions may involve enduring temperature extremes (see Wharton, Chapter 8, and Devaney, Chapter 10, this volume), osmotic stress (see Wharton and Perry, Chapter 11, this volume) and dehydration, in addition to withstanding the absence of food. The ability of some species of nematode to survive desiccation for periods considerably in excess of the duration of the normal life cycle has been studied in detail, in part because in species with a direct life cyele this attribute is hnked to effective dispersion of nematodes. In the past, research has focused primarily on the remarkable structural, physiological and behavioural adaptations that facilitate desiccation survival (Perry, 1999). However, more recently the molecular aspects have received considerable attention, and these ar reviewed by Burnell and Tunnaeliffe, Chapter 6, and Adhikari {\'e}md Adams, Chapter 9, this volume. In this chapter, we examine the morphologicaI, physiological and behavioural adaptations, focusing principallyon desiccation survival and the link to nematode dispersion. This link and the need to understand the temporaI factors involved in survival are elearly vital for effective management and control ophons for parasitic nematodes. The pre-adult stages of nematodes are ca lied juveniles by plant nematolof ogists, and the term infective juvenile (IJ) is favoured by researchers working with entomopathogenic nematodes. However, the term larva(e) is the term of choice for animal nematologists and the Caenorhabditis efegans community. To ensure consistency throughout this chapter, larva(e) will be used.},
  author       = {Perry, Roland and Moens, Maurice},
  booktitle    = {Molecular and physiological basis of nematode survival},
  editor       = {Perry, Roland N and Wharton, David A},
  isbn         = {9781845935719},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {1--27},
  publisher    = {CABI Publishing},
  title        = {Survival of parasitic nematodes outside the host},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Perry, Roland, and Maurice Moens. 2011. “Survival of Parasitic Nematodes Outside the Host.” In Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nematode Survival, ed. Roland N Perry and David A Wharton, 1–27. CABI Publishing.
APA
Perry, R., & Moens, M. (2011). Survival of parasitic nematodes outside the host. In R. N. Perry & D. A. Wharton (Eds.), Molecular and physiological basis of nematode survival (pp. 1–27). CABI Publishing.
Vancouver
1.
Perry R, Moens M. Survival of parasitic nematodes outside the host. In: Perry RN, Wharton DA, editors. Molecular and physiological basis of nematode survival. CABI Publishing; 2011. p. 1–27.
MLA
Perry, Roland, and Maurice Moens. “Survival of Parasitic Nematodes Outside the Host.” Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nematode Survival. Ed. Roland N Perry & David A Wharton. CABI Publishing, 2011. 1–27. Print.