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Polar front shift and atmospheric CO2 during the glacial maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse

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Abstract
Our new data address the paradox of Late Ordovician glaciation under supposedly high pCO(2) (8 to 22x PAL: preindustrial atmospheric level). The paleobiogeographical distribution of chitinozoan ("mixed layer") marine zooplankton biotopes for the Hirnantian glacial maximum (440 Ma) are reconstructed and compared to those from the Sandbian (460 Ma): They demonstrate a steeper latitudinal temperature gradient and an equatorwards shift of the Polar Front through time from 55 degrees-70 degrees S to similar to 40 degrees S. These changes are comparable to those during Pleistocene interglacial-glacial cycles. In comparison with the Pleistocene, we hypothesize a significant decline in mean global temperature from the Sandbian to Hirnantian, proportional with a fall in pCO2 from a modeled Sandbian level of similar to 8x PAL to similar to 5x PAL during the Hirnantian. Our data suggest that a compression of midlatitudinal biotopes and ecospace in response to the developing glaciation was a likely cause of the end-Ordovician mass extinction.
Keywords
zooplankton biotopes, chitinozoans, Hirnantian glaciations, Ordovician, SEA-LEVEL, climate belts, LATE ORDOVICIAN GLACIATION, MASS EXTINCTION, PCO(2)

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Chicago
Vandenbroucke, Thijs, Howard A Armstrong, Mark Williams, Florentin Paris, Jan A Zalasiewicz, Koen Sabbe, Jaak Nõlvak, Thomas J Challandsa, Jacques Verniers, and Thomas Servais. 2010. “Polar Front Shift and Atmospheric CO2 During the Glacial Maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (34): 14983–14986.
APA
Vandenbroucke, Thijs, Armstrong, H. A., Williams, M., Paris, F., Zalasiewicz, J. A., Sabbe, K., Nõlvak, J., et al. (2010). Polar front shift and atmospheric CO2 during the glacial maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 107(34), 14983–14986.
Vancouver
1.
Vandenbroucke T, Armstrong HA, Williams M, Paris F, Zalasiewicz JA, Sabbe K, et al. Polar front shift and atmospheric CO2 during the glacial maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2010;107(34):14983–6.
MLA
Vandenbroucke, Thijs, Howard A Armstrong, Mark Williams, et al. “Polar Front Shift and Atmospheric CO2 During the Glacial Maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 107.34 (2010): 14983–14986. Print.
@article{1245763,
  abstract     = {Our new data address the paradox of Late Ordovician glaciation under supposedly high pCO(2) (8 to 22x PAL: preindustrial atmospheric level). The paleobiogeographical distribution of chitinozoan ({\textacutedbl}mixed layer{\textacutedbl}) marine zooplankton biotopes for the Hirnantian glacial maximum (440 Ma) are reconstructed and compared to those from the Sandbian (460 Ma): They demonstrate a steeper latitudinal temperature gradient and an equatorwards shift of the Polar Front through time from 55 degrees-70 degrees S to similar to 40 degrees S. These changes are comparable to those during Pleistocene interglacial-glacial cycles. In comparison with the Pleistocene, we hypothesize a significant decline in mean global temperature from the Sandbian to Hirnantian, proportional with a fall in pCO2 from a modeled Sandbian level of similar to 8x PAL to similar to 5x PAL during the Hirnantian. Our data suggest that a compression of midlatitudinal biotopes and ecospace in response to the developing glaciation was a likely cause of the end-Ordovician mass extinction.},
  author       = {Vandenbroucke, Thijs and Armstrong, Howard A and Williams, Mark and Paris, Florentin and Zalasiewicz, Jan A and Sabbe, Koen and N{\~o}lvak, Jaak and Challandsa, Thomas J and Verniers, Jacques and Servais, Thomas},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keyword      = {zooplankton biotopes,chitinozoans,Hirnantian glaciations,Ordovician,SEA-LEVEL,climate belts,LATE ORDOVICIAN GLACIATION,MASS EXTINCTION,PCO(2)},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {34},
  pages        = {14983--14986},
  title        = {Polar front shift and atmospheric CO2 during the glacial maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003220107},
  volume       = {107},
  year         = {2010},
}

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