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Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium re-excretion by pigs is associated with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in porcine macrophages

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Abstract
Infections of pigs with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, such as transport to the slaughter house, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur. The mechanism of stress related re-excretion of Salmonella by pigs is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol on Salmonella re-excretion by pigs. First, an in vivo infection model was optimized to reproduce stress induced re-excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs. We showed that a 24 hour feed withdrawal increases the Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased cortisol blood levels. A second in vivo trial, showed that the stress related re-excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone, a synthetic member of the glucocorticoids, at a concentration (2 mg/kg) that does not cause immunosuppression of the pig (Flaming et al., 1994). Furthermore we demonstrated that cortisol promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), at a concentration (1 µM) that did not exert a notable effect on porcine cell viability. Whether this increased intracellular proliferation is triggered by cortisol-induced changes in the host cell or by direct interaction of the bacterium with cortisol, was investigated via microarray analysis. This pointed out that cortisol (1 µM) does not cause any significant changes in the gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium, which implies that the enhanced survival of the bacteria is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the re-excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions. Reference: Flaming, K.P., Gogg, B.L., Roth, F., Roth, J.A. 1994. Pigs are relatively resistant to dexamethasone induced immunosuppression 4, 218-225.

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Chicago
Verbrugghe, Elin, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Bregje Leyman, Kim Van Deun, Arthur Thompson, Neil Shearer, Alexander Van Parys, and Frank Pasmans. 2011. “Stress Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Re-excretion by Pigs Is Associated with Cortisol Induced Increased Intracellular Proliferation in Porcine Macrophages.” In SafePork, Abstracts.
APA
Verbrugghe, E., Haesebrouck, F., Boyen, F., Leyman, B., Van Deun, K., Thompson, A., Shearer, N., et al. (2011). Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium re-excretion by pigs is associated with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in porcine macrophages. SafePork, Abstracts. Presented at the SafePork 2011 : 9th international conference on the epidemiology and control of biological, chemical and physical hazards in pigs and pork.
Vancouver
1.
Verbrugghe E, Haesebrouck F, Boyen F, Leyman B, Van Deun K, Thompson A, et al. Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium re-excretion by pigs is associated with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in porcine macrophages. SafePork, Abstracts. 2011.
MLA
Verbrugghe, Elin, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, et al. “Stress Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Re-excretion by Pigs Is Associated with Cortisol Induced Increased Intracellular Proliferation in Porcine Macrophages.” SafePork, Abstracts. 2011. Print.
@inproceedings{1245111,
  abstract     = {Infections of pigs with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, such as transport to the slaughter house, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur. The mechanism of stress related re-excretion of Salmonella by pigs is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol on Salmonella re-excretion by pigs.
First, an in vivo infection model was optimized to reproduce stress induced re-excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs. We showed that a 24 hour feed withdrawal increases the Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased cortisol blood levels. A second in vivo trial, showed that the stress related re-excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone, a synthetic member of the glucocorticoids, at a concentration (2 mg/kg) that does not cause immunosuppression of the pig (Flaming et al., 1994). Furthermore we demonstrated that cortisol promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), at a concentration (1 {\textmu}M) that did not exert a notable effect on porcine cell viability. Whether this increased intracellular proliferation is triggered by cortisol-induced changes in the host cell or by direct interaction of the bacterium with cortisol, was investigated via microarray analysis. This pointed out that cortisol (1 {\textmu}M) does not cause any significant changes in the gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium, which implies that the enhanced survival of the bacteria is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. 
These results highlight the role of cortisol in the re-excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions.
Reference:
Flaming, K.P., Gogg, B.L., Roth, F., Roth, J.A. 1994. Pigs are relatively resistant to dexamethasone induced immunosuppression 4, 218-225.},
  author       = {Verbrugghe, Elin and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Boyen, Filip and Leyman, Bregje and Van Deun, Kim  and Thompson, Arthur and Shearer, Neil and Van Parys, Alexander and Pasmans, Frank},
  booktitle    = {SafePork, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Maastricht, The Netherlands},
  title        = {Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium re-excretion by pigs is associated with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in porcine macrophages},
  year         = {2011},
}