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Toe function and dynamic pressure distribution in ostrich locomotion

Nina Ursula Schaller, Kristiaan D'Aout, Rikk Villa, Bernd Herkner and Peter Aerts UGent (2011) JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. 214(7). p.1123-1130
abstract
The ostrich is highly specialized in terrestrial locomotion and is the only extant bird that is both didactyl and exhibits a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint. This extreme degree of digitigrady provides an excellent opportunity for the study of phalangeal adaptation towards fast, sustained bipedal locomotion. Data were gathered in a semi-natural setting with hand-raised, cooperative specimens. Dynamic pressure distribution, centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory and the positional inter-relationship of the toes during stance phase were investigated using pedobarography. Walking and running trials shared a J-shaped CoP trajectory with greater localization of CoP origin as speed increased. Slight variations of 4th toe position in walking affect CoP origin and modulation of 4th toe pressure on the substrate allows correction of balance, primarily at the beginning of stance phase at lower speeds. Load distribution patterns differed significantly between slow and fast trials. In walking, the 3rd and particularly the 4th toe exhibited notable variation in load distribution with minor claw participation only at push-off. Running trials yielded a distinctly triangular load distribution pattern defined by the 4th toe tip, the proximal part of the 3rd toe and the claw tip, with the sharp point of the claw providing an essential traction element at push-off. Consistency of CoP trajectory and load distribution at higher speeds arises from dynamic stability effects and may also reflect stringent limitations to degrees of freedom in hindlimb joint articulation that contribute to locomotor efficiency. This novel research could aid in the reconstruction of theropod locomotor modes and offers a systemic approach for future avian pedobarographic investigations
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
BIRDS, WALKING, BIPEDAL LOCOMOTION, STRUTHIO-CAMELUS, dynamic pressure distribution, centre of pressure, JOINT, didactyl, toe function, ostrich
journal title
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY
J. Exp. Biol.
volume
214
issue
7
pages
1123 - 1130
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000288155200018
JCR category
BIOLOGY
JCR impact factor
2.996 (2011)
JCR rank
17/84 (2011)
JCR quartile
1 (2011)
ISSN
0022-0949
DOI
10.1242/jeb.043596
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1241400
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1241400
date created
2011-05-25 13:39:09
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:42:48
@article{1241400,
  abstract     = {The ostrich is highly specialized in terrestrial locomotion and is the only extant bird that is both didactyl and exhibits a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint. This extreme degree of digitigrady provides an excellent opportunity for the study of phalangeal adaptation towards fast, sustained bipedal locomotion. Data were gathered in a semi-natural setting with hand-raised, cooperative specimens. Dynamic pressure distribution, centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory and the positional inter-relationship of the toes during stance phase were investigated using pedobarography. Walking and running trials shared a J-shaped CoP trajectory with greater localization of CoP origin as speed increased. Slight variations of 4th toe position in walking affect CoP origin and modulation of 4th toe pressure on the substrate allows correction of balance, primarily at the beginning of stance phase at lower speeds. Load distribution patterns differed significantly between slow and fast trials. In walking, the 3rd and particularly the 4th toe exhibited notable variation in load distribution with minor claw participation only at push-off. Running trials yielded a distinctly triangular load distribution pattern defined by the 4th toe tip, the proximal part of the 3rd toe and the claw tip, with the sharp point of the claw providing an essential traction element at push-off. Consistency of CoP trajectory and load distribution at higher speeds arises from dynamic stability effects and may also reflect stringent limitations to degrees of freedom in hindlimb joint articulation that contribute to locomotor efficiency. This novel research could aid in the reconstruction of theropod locomotor modes and offers a systemic approach for future avian pedobarographic investigations},
  author       = {Schaller, Nina Ursula and D'Aout, Kristiaan and Villa, Rikk and Herkner, Bernd and Aerts, Peter},
  issn         = {0022-0949},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {BIRDS,WALKING,BIPEDAL LOCOMOTION,STRUTHIO-CAMELUS,dynamic pressure distribution,centre of pressure,JOINT,didactyl,toe function,ostrich},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {1123--1130},
  title        = {Toe function and dynamic pressure distribution in ostrich locomotion},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.043596},
  volume       = {214},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Schaller, Nina Ursula, Kristiaan D’Aout, Rikk Villa, Bernd Herkner, and Peter Aerts. 2011. “Toe Function and Dynamic Pressure Distribution in Ostrich Locomotion.” Journal of Experimental Biology 214 (7): 1123–1130.
APA
Schaller, N. U., D’Aout, K., Villa, R., Herkner, B., & Aerts, P. (2011). Toe function and dynamic pressure distribution in ostrich locomotion. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 214(7), 1123–1130.
Vancouver
1.
Schaller NU, D’Aout K, Villa R, Herkner B, Aerts P. Toe function and dynamic pressure distribution in ostrich locomotion. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. 2011;214(7):1123–30.
MLA
Schaller, Nina Ursula, Kristiaan D’Aout, Rikk Villa, et al. “Toe Function and Dynamic Pressure Distribution in Ostrich Locomotion.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY 214.7 (2011): 1123–1130. Print.