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The impact of congruency and time pressure during simultaneous exposure in an IDTV context

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Abstract
In today‟s cluttered media environment, advertisers are constantly in search for new ways to improve the strength and effectiveness of their advertisements. They are continuously competing for the limited attention resources of consumers, declaring a so called “war for eye balls” (Schiessl et al., 2003). Contrary to the traditional, sequential formats of advertising, new technologies like Interactive Digital Television (IDTV) allow simultaneous exposure to media content and interactive advertising content using on-screen placements, television banners (Cauberghe and De Pelsmacker, 2008) or split-screen advertising (Chowdhury et al., 2007). Therefore, it is important to understand which factors determine viewer attention in today‟s cluttered and increasingly complex media environment. In this study, viewers are simultaneously exposed to both an interactive advertisement and a program context using IDTV technology. By doing so, they are forced to divide their attention between both information sources. This may lead to cognitive interference and consequently to less attention devoted to the advertisement. Using eye tracking, we study the role of program environment, more specifically how a thematically (in)congruent program affects both visual attention to an interactive ad and involvement with the ad message. Also, we investigate how congruence moderates the effect of cognitive load resulting from time pressure, while interacting with the interactive ad. Results show that when viewers are simultaneously exposed to a congruent context (i.e. the program and the interactive advertisement are thematically congruent), they devote more visual attention to the ad and jump more between the ad and the program than when the ad is processed in an incongruent context. Viewers are hindered and distracted by the fact that the information in the ad merges with the program context, therefore needing more time to disentangle both. Processing the information in an incongruent context, on the other hand, is less interfering and thus requires less time. Also, time pressure significantly reduces ad viewing time in the congruent context, while it does not affect viewing time in the incongruent situation. Further, results show a higher involvement with the ad message in the incongruent that in the congruent condition but increasing time pressure, on the other hand, does not appear to affect message involvement.

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Chicago
Panic, Katarina, Veroline Cauberghe, and Patrick De Pelsmacker. 2011. “The Impact of Congruency and Time Pressure During Simultaneous Exposure in an IDTV Context.” In Advertising : Types, Trends and Controversies, ed. Evelyn P Mann, 45–59. New York, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers.
APA
Panic, Katarina, Cauberghe, V., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2011). The impact of congruency and time pressure during simultaneous exposure in an IDTV context. In E. P. Mann (Ed.), Advertising : types, trends and controversies (pp. 45–59). New York, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers.
Vancouver
1.
Panic K, Cauberghe V, De Pelsmacker P. The impact of congruency and time pressure during simultaneous exposure in an IDTV context. In: Mann EP, editor. Advertising : types, trends and controversies. New York, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers; 2011. p. 45–59.
MLA
Panic, Katarina, Veroline Cauberghe, and Patrick De Pelsmacker. “The Impact of Congruency and Time Pressure During Simultaneous Exposure in an IDTV Context.” Advertising : Types, Trends and Controversies. Ed. Evelyn P Mann. New York, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers, 2011. 45–59. Print.
@incollection{1235740,
  abstract     = {In today\unmatched{201f}s cluttered media environment, advertisers are constantly in search for new ways to improve the strength and effectiveness of their advertisements. They are continuously competing for the limited attention resources of consumers, declaring a so called {\textquotedblleft}war for eye balls{\textquotedblright} (Schiessl et al., 2003). Contrary to the traditional, sequential formats of advertising, new technologies like Interactive Digital Television (IDTV) allow simultaneous exposure to media content and interactive advertising content using on-screen placements, television banners (Cauberghe and De Pelsmacker, 2008) or split-screen advertising (Chowdhury et al., 2007). Therefore, it is important to understand which factors determine viewer attention in today\unmatched{201f}s cluttered and increasingly complex media environment. In this study, viewers are simultaneously exposed to both an interactive advertisement and a program context using IDTV technology. By doing so, they are forced to divide their attention between both information sources. This may lead to cognitive interference and consequently to less attention devoted to the advertisement. Using eye tracking, we study the role of program environment, more specifically how a thematically (in)congruent program affects both visual attention to an interactive ad and involvement with the ad message. Also, we investigate how congruence moderates the effect of cognitive load resulting from time pressure, while interacting with the interactive ad. Results show that when viewers are simultaneously exposed to a congruent context (i.e. the program and the interactive advertisement are thematically congruent), they devote more visual attention to the ad and jump more between the ad and the program than when the ad is processed in an incongruent context. Viewers are hindered and distracted by the fact that the information in the ad merges with the program context, therefore needing more time to disentangle both. Processing the information in an incongruent context, on the other hand, is less interfering and thus requires less time. Also, time pressure significantly reduces ad viewing time in the congruent context, while it does not affect viewing time in the incongruent situation. Further, results show a higher involvement with the ad message in the incongruent that in the congruent condition but increasing time pressure, on the other hand, does not appear to affect message involvement.},
  author       = {Panic, Katarina and Cauberghe, Veroline and De Pelsmacker, Patrick},
  booktitle    = {Advertising : types, trends and controversies},
  editor       = {Mann, Evelyn P},
  isbn         = {9781620816790},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {45--59},
  publisher    = {Nova Science Publishers},
  series       = {Advertising: Media, Marketing and Consumer Demands},
  title        = {The impact of congruency and time pressure during simultaneous exposure in an IDTV context},
  year         = {2011},
}