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Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

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Abstract
Background: In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA) and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNA(maize)) were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNA(maize) recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results: GNA(maize) appeared to be similar to 20-to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4(+) T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4(+) T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNA(maize) selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis revealed that GNA and GNA(maize) interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (K-D) of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNA(maize) selectively binds complex-type GlcNAc beta 1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNA(maize) to gp120, whereas GNA(maize) cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAc beta 1,2man specific) or SNA (NeuAc alpha 2,6X specific). Conclusion: The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNA(maize) compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNA(maize) that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but not complex-type glycan binding of chemotherapeutics to gp120, may result in a pronounced neutralizing activity against the virus.
Keywords
RESISTANCE, BINDING, INFECTION, PLANT-LECTINS, HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS, ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN, NEUTRALIZATION SITE, GLYCOSYLATION SITES, GP120 ENVELOPE, V3 LOOP

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Chicago
Hoorelbeke, Bart, Els Van Damme, Pierre Rougé, Dominique Schols, Kristel Van Laethem, Elke Fouquaert, and Jan Balzarini. 2011. “Differences in the Mannose Oligomer Specificities of the Closely Related Lectins from Galanthus Nivalis and Zea Mays Strongly Determine Their Eventual anti-HIV Activity.” Retrovirology 8.
APA
Hoorelbeke, B., Van Damme, E., Rougé, P., Schols, D., Van Laethem, K., Fouquaert, E., & Balzarini, J. (2011). Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity. RETROVIROLOGY, 8.
Vancouver
1.
Hoorelbeke B, Van Damme E, Rougé P, Schols D, Van Laethem K, Fouquaert E, et al. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity. RETROVIROLOGY. 2011;8.
MLA
Hoorelbeke, Bart, Els Van Damme, Pierre Rougé, et al. “Differences in the Mannose Oligomer Specificities of the Closely Related Lectins from Galanthus Nivalis and Zea Mays Strongly Determine Their Eventual anti-HIV Activity.” RETROVIROLOGY 8 (2011): n. pag. Print.
@article{1233944,
  abstract     = {Background: In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA) and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNA(maize)) were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNA(maize) recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64\% sequence similarity. Results: GNA(maize) appeared to be similar to 20-to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4(+) T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4(+) T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNA(maize) selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis revealed that GNA and GNA(maize) interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (K-D) of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNA(maize) selectively binds complex-type GlcNAc beta 1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNA(maize) to gp120, whereas GNA(maize) cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAc beta 1,2man specific) or SNA (NeuAc alpha 2,6X specific). Conclusion: The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNA(maize) compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNA(maize) that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but not complex-type glycan binding of chemotherapeutics to gp120, may result in a pronounced neutralizing activity against the virus.},
  articleno    = {10},
  author       = {Hoorelbeke, Bart and Van Damme, Els and Roug{\'e}, Pierre and Schols, Dominique and Van Laethem, Kristel and Fouquaert, Elke and Balzarini, Jan},
  issn         = {1742-4690},
  journal      = {RETROVIROLOGY},
  keyword      = {RESISTANCE,BINDING,INFECTION,PLANT-LECTINS,HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS,ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN,NEUTRALIZATION SITE,GLYCOSYLATION SITES,GP120 ENVELOPE,V3 LOOP},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-8-10},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2011},
}

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