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International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

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Abstract
International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N=19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0-198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes1%). Across all pairs of societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies.
Keywords
PREVALENCE, SAMPLE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, CHECKLIST, DISORDERS

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Chicago
Rescorla, Leslie A, Thomas M Achenbach, Masha Y Ivanova, Valerie S Harder, Laura Otten, Niels Bilenberg, Gudrun Bjarnadottir, et al. 2011. “International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports from 24 Societies.” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 40 (3): 456–467.
APA
Rescorla, L. A., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Harder, V. S., Otten, L., Bilenberg, N., Bjarnadottir, G., et al. (2011). International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents’ reports from 24 societies. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY, 40(3), 456–467.
Vancouver
1.
Rescorla LA, Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Harder VS, Otten L, Bilenberg N, et al. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents’ reports from 24 societies. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY. 2011;40(3):456–67.
MLA
Rescorla, Leslie A, Thomas M Achenbach, Masha Y Ivanova, et al. “International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports from 24 Societies.” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY 40.3 (2011): 456–467. Print.
@article{1233433,
  abstract     = {International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N=19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12\%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0-198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes1\%). Across all pairs of societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies.},
  author       = {Rescorla, Leslie A and Achenbach, Thomas M and Ivanova, Masha Y and Harder, Valerie S and Otten, Laura and Bilenberg, Niels and Bjarnadottir, Gudrun and Capron, Christiane and De Pauw, Sarah and Dias, Pedro and Dobrean, Anca and Dopfner, Manfred and Duyme, Michel and Eapen, Valsamma and Erol, Nese and Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad and Ezpeleta, Lourdes and Frigerio, Alessandra and Fung, Daniel SS and Goncalves, Miguel and Guomundsson, Halldor and Jeng, Suh-Fang and Jusiene, Roma and Kim, Young-Ah and Kristensen, Solvejg and Liu, Jianghong and Lecannelier, Felipe and Leung, Patrick WL and Machado, Barbara Cesar and Montirosso, Rosario and Oh, Kyung Ja and Ooi, Yoon Phaik and Pluck, Julia and Pomalima, Rolando and Pranvera, Jetishi and Schmeck, Klaus and Shahini, Mimoza and Silva, Jaime R and Simsek, Zeynep and Sourander, Andre and Valverde, Jose and van der Ende, Jan and Van Leeuwen, Karla G and Wu, Yen-Tzu and Yurdusen, Sema and Zubrick, Stephen R and Verhulst, Frank C},
  issn         = {1537-4416},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY},
  keyword      = {PREVALENCE,SAMPLE,EPIDEMIOLOGY,CHECKLIST,DISORDERS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {456--467},
  title        = {International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.563472},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2011},
}

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