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Effect of sampling method and storage conditions on albumin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase concentrations in canine urine samples

Pascale Smets (UGent) , Evelyne Meyer (UGent) , Bert Maddens (UGent) , Luc Duchateau (UGent) and Sylvie Daminet (UGent)
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Abstract
Urinary markers for renal dysfunction are gaining interest but effects of sampling method, storage conditions, and urinary tract inflammation or infection on these markers are unclear Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to determine the difference in urinary albumin (uALB), urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and urinary N-acetyl-beta D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) concentrations in cystocentesis and voided samples and to investigate concentration changes after storage at -20 degrees C and at -80 degrees C Effects of a protease inhibitor were also assessed in samples stored at -80 degrees C for 12 months In a pilot experiment, influence of in vitro hematuria, pyuria, and bacteriuria on the urinary markers was evaluated A mixed model was used to calculate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals Urinary ALB, uNAG, and uRBP concentrations were similar in voided and cystocentesis samples After storage for 4 months at -20 degrees C, uALB concentration was not affected and uRBP concentration showed a mild and clinically irrelevant decrease, whereas uNAG activity was significantly lower compared with fresh samples After storage for 12 months at -80 degrees C, uALB and uRBP concentrations did not differ from fresh samples but uNAG activity was severely decreased Protease inhibitor addition did not preserve uNAG activity Experimental hematuria, pyuria, and bacteriuria did not seem to affect urinary markers although further research is needed
Keywords
storage, urine, retinol-binding protein, PROLONGED FROZEN STORAGE, BLOOD CONTAMINATION, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, Albumin, RENAL MARKERS, FOLLOW-UP, DOGS, CATS, MICROALBUMINURIA, STABILITY, DISEASE, ENZYMES

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MLA
Smets, Pascale, Evelyne Meyer, Bert Maddens, et al. “Effect of Sampling Method and Storage Conditions on Albumin, Retinol-binding Protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase Concentrations in Canine Urine Samples.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION 22.6 (2010): 896–902. Print.
APA
Smets, P., Meyer, E., Maddens, B., Duchateau, L., & Daminet, S. (2010). Effect of sampling method and storage conditions on albumin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase concentrations in canine urine samples. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION, 22(6), 896–902.
Chicago author-date
Smets, Pascale, Evelyne Meyer, Bert Maddens, Luc Duchateau, and Sylvie Daminet. 2010. “Effect of Sampling Method and Storage Conditions on Albumin, Retinol-binding Protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase Concentrations in Canine Urine Samples.” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22 (6): 896–902.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Smets, Pascale, Evelyne Meyer, Bert Maddens, Luc Duchateau, and Sylvie Daminet. 2010. “Effect of Sampling Method and Storage Conditions on Albumin, Retinol-binding Protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase Concentrations in Canine Urine Samples.” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22 (6): 896–902.
Vancouver
1.
Smets P, Meyer E, Maddens B, Duchateau L, Daminet S. Effect of sampling method and storage conditions on albumin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase concentrations in canine urine samples. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION. 2010;22(6):896–902.
IEEE
[1]
P. Smets, E. Meyer, B. Maddens, L. Duchateau, and S. Daminet, “Effect of sampling method and storage conditions on albumin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase concentrations in canine urine samples,” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 896–902, 2010.
@article{1231390,
  abstract     = {Urinary markers for renal dysfunction are gaining interest but effects of sampling method, storage conditions, and urinary tract inflammation or infection on these markers are unclear Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to determine the difference in urinary albumin (uALB), urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and urinary N-acetyl-beta D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) concentrations in cystocentesis and voided samples and to investigate concentration changes after storage at -20 degrees C and at -80 degrees C Effects of a protease inhibitor were also assessed in samples stored at -80 degrees C for 12 months In a pilot experiment, influence of in vitro hematuria, pyuria, and bacteriuria on the urinary markers was evaluated A mixed model was used to calculate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals Urinary ALB, uNAG, and uRBP concentrations were similar in voided and cystocentesis samples After storage for 4 months at -20 degrees C, uALB concentration was not affected and uRBP concentration showed a mild and clinically irrelevant decrease, whereas uNAG activity was significantly lower compared with fresh samples After storage for 12 months at -80 degrees C, uALB and uRBP concentrations did not differ from fresh samples but uNAG activity was severely decreased Protease inhibitor addition did not preserve uNAG activity Experimental hematuria, pyuria, and bacteriuria did not seem to affect urinary markers although further research is needed},
  author       = {Smets, Pascale and Meyer, Evelyne and Maddens, Bert and Duchateau, Luc and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1040-6387},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION},
  keywords     = {storage,urine,retinol-binding protein,PROLONGED FROZEN STORAGE,BLOOD CONTAMINATION,N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase,Albumin,RENAL MARKERS,FOLLOW-UP,DOGS,CATS,MICROALBUMINURIA,STABILITY,DISEASE,ENZYMES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {896--902},
  title        = {Effect of sampling method and storage conditions on albumin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase concentrations in canine urine samples},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063871002200607},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2010},
}

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