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Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology

Michiel Vandegehuchte (UGent) and Colin Janssen (UGent)
(2011) ECOTOXICOLOGY. 20(3). p.607-624
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Abstract
Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Interestingly, epigenetic changes can be triggered by environmental factors. Environmental exposure to e.g. metals, persistent organic pollutants or endocrine disrupting chemicals has been shown to modulate epigenetic marks, not only in mammalian cells or rodents, but also in environmentally relevant species such as fish or water fleas. The associated changes in gene expression often lead to modifications in the affected organism's phenotype. Epigenetic changes can in some cases be transferred to subsequent generations, even when these generations are no longer exposed to the external factor which induced the epigenetic change, as observed in a study with fungicide exposed rats. The possibility of this phenomenon in other species was demonstrated in water fleas exposed to the epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine. This way, populations can experience the effects of their ancestors' exposure to chemicals, which has implications for environmental risk assessment. More basic research is needed to assess the potential phenotypic and population-level effects of epigenetic modifications in different species and to evaluate the persistence of chemical exposure-induced epigenetic effects in multiple subsequent generations.
Keywords
TRANSGENERATIONAL INHERITANCE, HISTONE MODIFICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL EPIGENETICS, DNA methylation, GENE-EXPRESSION, DIETARY-PROTEIN RESTRICTION, DIETHYLSTILBESTROL EXPOSURE, METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY, ADULT-ONSET DISEASE, Transgenerational effects, Invertebrates, Environmental toxicology, ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN, GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Vandegehuchte, Michiel, and Colin Janssen. 2011. “Epigenetics and Its Implications for Ecotoxicology.” Ecotoxicology 20 (3): 607–624.
APA
Vandegehuchte, Michiel, & Janssen, C. (2011). Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology. ECOTOXICOLOGY, 20(3), 607–624.
Vancouver
1.
Vandegehuchte M, Janssen C. Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology. ECOTOXICOLOGY. 2011;20(3):607–24.
MLA
Vandegehuchte, Michiel, and Colin Janssen. “Epigenetics and Its Implications for Ecotoxicology.” ECOTOXICOLOGY 20.3 (2011): 607–624. Print.
@article{1219637,
  abstract     = {Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Interestingly, epigenetic changes can be triggered by environmental factors. Environmental exposure to e.g. metals, persistent organic pollutants or endocrine disrupting chemicals has been shown to modulate epigenetic marks, not only in mammalian cells or rodents, but also in environmentally relevant species such as fish or water fleas. The associated changes in gene expression often lead to modifications in the affected organism's phenotype. Epigenetic changes can in some cases be transferred to subsequent generations, even when these generations are no longer exposed to the external factor which induced the epigenetic change, as observed in a study with fungicide exposed rats. The possibility of this phenomenon in other species was demonstrated in water fleas exposed to the epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine. This way, populations can experience the effects of their ancestors' exposure to chemicals, which has implications for environmental risk assessment. More basic research is needed to assess the potential phenotypic and population-level effects of epigenetic modifications in different species and to evaluate the persistence of chemical exposure-induced epigenetic effects in multiple subsequent generations.},
  author       = {Vandegehuchte, Michiel and Janssen, Colin},
  issn         = {0963-9292},
  journal      = {ECOTOXICOLOGY},
  keyword      = {TRANSGENERATIONAL INHERITANCE,HISTONE MODIFICATIONS,ENVIRONMENTAL EPIGENETICS,DNA methylation,GENE-EXPRESSION,DIETARY-PROTEIN RESTRICTION,DIETHYLSTILBESTROL EXPOSURE,METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY,ADULT-ONSET DISEASE,Transgenerational effects,Invertebrates,Environmental toxicology,ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN,GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {607--624},
  title        = {Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0634-0},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2011},
}

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