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Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection of naturally occurring thiouracil in urine of untreated livestock, domesticated animals and humans

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Abstract
Thiouracil belongs to the xenobiotic thyreostats, which are growth-promoting agents illegally used in animal production. Recently it has been reported that thiouracil is suspected to have a natural origin. The European Union of Reference Laboratory guidance paper of 2007 acknowledged this by stating that thiouracil concentrations below 10 mu g l-1 might have a natural origin derived from the consumption of Brassicaceae. The present research aimed at endorsing this possible natural occurrence. Urine samples of animals (livestock and domesticated) with known and unknown clinical backgrounds were analysed for thiouracil with a newly developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis method without derivatisation. In addition, a small-scale 9-day human experiment with Brassicaceae vegetables was performed to investigate if this natural prevalence could be extrapolated to the human population. The untreated animals had thiouracil concentrations below 10 mu g l-1 acknowledging the alleged natural occurrence of thiouracil. As for the humans, in 66.7% of the urine samples thiouracil was found above the CC of 2.2 mu g l-1. However, the correlation with the Brassicaceae diet proved to be non-significant (p = 0.095). Nevertheless, these results clearly demonstrate the natural occurrence of thiouracil in urine of animals and humans. The exact origin of this natural thiouracil trace still needs to be identified.
Keywords
ISOTHIOCYANATES, INGESTION

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Chicago
Vanden Bussche, Julie, Lynn Vanhaecke, Yoan Deceuninck, Klaas Wille, Karen Bekaert, Bruno Le Bizec, and Hubert De Brabander. 2011. “Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Detection of Naturally Occurring Thiouracil in Urine of Untreated Livestock, Domesticated Animals and Humans.” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A-chemistry Analysis Control Exposure & Risk Assessment 28 (2): 166–172.
APA
Vanden Bussche, J., Vanhaecke, L., Deceuninck, Y., Wille, K., Bekaert, K., Le Bizec, B., & De Brabander, H. (2011). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection of naturally occurring thiouracil in urine of untreated livestock, domesticated animals and humans. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT, 28(2), 166–172.
Vancouver
1.
Vanden Bussche J, Vanhaecke L, Deceuninck Y, Wille K, Bekaert K, Le Bizec B, et al. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection of naturally occurring thiouracil in urine of untreated livestock, domesticated animals and humans. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT. 2011;28(2):166–72.
MLA
Vanden Bussche, Julie, Lynn Vanhaecke, Yoan Deceuninck, et al. “Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Detection of Naturally Occurring Thiouracil in Urine of Untreated Livestock, Domesticated Animals and Humans.” FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT 28.2 (2011): 166–172. Print.
@article{1218442,
  abstract     = {Thiouracil belongs to the xenobiotic thyreostats, which are    growth-promoting agents illegally used in animal production. Recently it has been reported that thiouracil is suspected to have a natural origin. The European Union of Reference Laboratory guidance paper of 2007 acknowledged this by stating that thiouracil concentrations below 10 mu g l-1 might have a natural origin derived from the consumption of   Brassicaceae. The present research aimed at endorsing this possible natural occurrence. Urine samples of animals (livestock and domesticated) with known and unknown clinical backgrounds were analysed for thiouracil with a newly developed ultra-high performance liquid    chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis method without derivatisation. In addition, a small-scale 9-day human experiment with Brassicaceae vegetables was performed to investigate if this natural prevalence could be extrapolated to the human population. The untreated animals had thiouracil concentrations below 10 mu g l-1 acknowledging the alleged natural occurrence of thiouracil. As for the humans, in 66.7\% of the urine samples thiouracil was found above the CC of 2.2 mu g l-1. However, the correlation with the Brassicaceae diet proved to be non-significant (p = 0.095).    Nevertheless, these results clearly demonstrate the natural occurrence of thiouracil in urine of animals and humans. The exact origin of this natural thiouracil trace still needs to be identified.},
  author       = {Vanden Bussche, Julie and Vanhaecke, Lynn and Deceuninck, Yoan and Wille, Klaas and Bekaert, Karen and Le Bizec, Bruno and De Brabander, Hubert},
  issn         = {1944-0049},
  journal      = {FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE \& RISK ASSESSMENT},
  keyword      = {ISOTHIOCYANATES,INGESTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {166--172},
  title        = {Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection of naturally occurring thiouracil in urine of untreated livestock, domesticated animals and humans},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2010.544681},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2011},
}

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