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Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts

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Abstract
Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of:strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while. different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic. fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages.
Keywords
BLACK TIGER SHRIMP, PENAEUS-MONODON FABRICIUS, INFECTIONS, CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA

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Chicago
Vandenberghe, Johan, Linda Verdonck, Rocio Robles-Arozarena, Gabriel Rivera, Annick Bolland, Marcos Balladares, Bruno Gomez-Gil, Jorge Calderon, Patrick Sorgeloos, and Jean Swings. 1999. “Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus Vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 (6): 2592–2597.
APA
Vandenberghe, Johan, Verdonck, L., Robles-Arozarena, R., Rivera, G., Bolland, A., Balladares, M., Gomez-Gil, B., et al. (1999). Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 65(6), 2592–2597.
Vancouver
1.
Vandenberghe J, Verdonck L, Robles-Arozarena R, Rivera G, Bolland A, Balladares M, et al. Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. 1999;65(6):2592–7.
MLA
Vandenberghe, Johan, Linda Verdonck, Rocio Robles-Arozarena, et al. “Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus Vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts.” APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 65.6 (1999): 2592–2597. Print.
@article{120892,
  abstract     = {Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of:strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while. different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic. fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages.},
  author       = {Vandenberghe, Johan and Verdonck, Linda and Robles-Arozarena, Rocio and Rivera, Gabriel and Bolland, Annick and Balladares, Marcos and Gomez-Gil, Bruno and Calderon, Jorge and Sorgeloos, Patrick and Swings, Jean},
  issn         = {0099-2240},
  journal      = {APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {BLACK TIGER SHRIMP,PENAEUS-MONODON FABRICIUS,INFECTIONS,CRUSTACEA,DECAPODA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {2592--2597},
  title        = {Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts},
  url          = {http://aem.asm.org/content/65/6/2592},
  volume       = {65},
  year         = {1999},
}

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