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Quantification of left ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, velocity and displacement in healthy horses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking

Annelies Decloedt (UGent) , Tinne Verheyen (UGent) , Stanislas Sys (UGent) , Dominique De Clercq (UGent) and Gunther van Loon (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: The quantification of equine left ventricular (LV) function is generally limited to short-axis M-mode measurements. However, LV deformation is 3-dimensional (3D) and consists of longitudinal shortening, circumferential shortening, and radial thickening. In human medicine, longitudinal motion is the best marker of subtle myocardial dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of 2-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) for quantifying equine LV longitudinal function. Animals: Ten healthy untrained trotter horses; 9.6 +/- 4.4 years; 509 +/- 58 kg. Methods : Prospective study. Repeated echocardiographic examinations were performed by 2 observers from a modified 4-chamber view. Global, segmental, and averaged peak values and timing of longitudinal strain (SL), strain rate (SrL), velocity (VL), and displacement (DL) were measured in 4 LV wall segments. The inter- and intraobserver within- and between-day variability was assessed by calculating the coefficients of variation for repeated measurements. Results: 2DST analysis was feasible in each exam. The variability of peak systolic values and peak timing was low to moderate, whereas peak diastolic values showed a higher variability. Significant segmental differences were demonstrated. DL and VL presented a prominent base-to-midwall gradient. SL and SrL values were similar in all segments except the basal septal segment, which showed a significantly lower peak SL occurring about 60 ms later compared with the other segments. Conclusions and Clinical Importance 2DST is a reliable technique for measuring systolic LV longitudinal motion in healthy horses. This study provides preliminary reference values, which can be used when evaluating the technique in a clinical setting.
Keywords
RADIAL STRAIN, WALL-MOTION, M-MODE, QUANTITATION, MITRAL REGURGITATION, MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION, RELIABILITY, ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC-ASSESSMENT, CONTRACTION, VALIDATION, Cardiology, 2-dimensional strain, Contractility, Echocardiography, Myocardial function

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MLA
Decloedt, Annelies et al. “Quantification of Left Ventricular Longitudinal Strain, Strain Rate, Velocity and Displacement in Healthy Horses by 2-dimensional Speckle Tracking.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 25.2 (2011): 330–338. Print.
APA
Decloedt, Annelies, Verheyen, T., Sys, S., De Clercq, D., & van Loon, G. (2011). Quantification of left ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, velocity and displacement in healthy horses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 25(2), 330–338.
Chicago author-date
Decloedt, Annelies, Tinne Verheyen, Stanislas Sys, Dominique De Clercq, and Gunther van Loon. 2011. “Quantification of Left Ventricular Longitudinal Strain, Strain Rate, Velocity and Displacement in Healthy Horses by 2-dimensional Speckle Tracking.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 25 (2): 330–338.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Decloedt, Annelies, Tinne Verheyen, Stanislas Sys, Dominique De Clercq, and Gunther van Loon. 2011. “Quantification of Left Ventricular Longitudinal Strain, Strain Rate, Velocity and Displacement in Healthy Horses by 2-dimensional Speckle Tracking.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 25 (2): 330–338.
Vancouver
1.
Decloedt A, Verheyen T, Sys S, De Clercq D, van Loon G. Quantification of left ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, velocity and displacement in healthy horses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE. 2011;25(2):330–8.
IEEE
[1]
A. Decloedt, T. Verheyen, S. Sys, D. De Clercq, and G. van Loon, “Quantification of left ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, velocity and displacement in healthy horses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking,” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 330–338, 2011.
@article{1198418,
  abstract     = {Background: The quantification of equine left ventricular (LV) function is generally limited to short-axis M-mode measurements. However, LV deformation is 3-dimensional (3D) and consists of longitudinal shortening, circumferential shortening, and radial thickening. In human medicine, longitudinal motion is the best marker of subtle myocardial dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of 2-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) for quantifying equine LV longitudinal function. Animals: Ten healthy untrained trotter horses; 9.6 +/- 4.4 years; 509 +/- 58 kg. Methods : Prospective study. Repeated echocardiographic examinations were performed by 2 observers from a modified 4-chamber view. Global, segmental, and averaged peak values and timing of longitudinal strain (SL), strain rate (SrL), velocity (VL), and displacement (DL) were measured in 4 LV wall segments. The inter- and intraobserver within- and between-day variability was assessed by calculating the coefficients of variation for repeated measurements. Results: 2DST analysis was feasible in each exam. The variability of peak systolic values and peak timing was low to moderate, whereas peak diastolic values showed a higher variability. Significant segmental differences were demonstrated. DL and VL presented a prominent base-to-midwall gradient. SL and SrL values were similar in all segments except the basal septal segment, which showed a significantly lower peak SL occurring about 60 ms later compared with the other segments. Conclusions and Clinical Importance 2DST is a reliable technique for measuring systolic LV longitudinal motion in healthy horses. This study provides preliminary reference values, which can be used when evaluating the technique in a clinical setting.},
  author       = {Decloedt, Annelies and Verheyen, Tinne and Sys, Stanislas and De Clercq, Dominique and van Loon, Gunther},
  issn         = {0891-6640},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {RADIAL STRAIN,WALL-MOTION,M-MODE,QUANTITATION,MITRAL REGURGITATION,MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION,RELIABILITY,ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC-ASSESSMENT,CONTRACTION,VALIDATION,Cardiology,2-dimensional strain,Contractility,Echocardiography,Myocardial function},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {330--338},
  title        = {Quantification of left ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, velocity and displacement in healthy horses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0663.x},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2011},
}

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