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Annotation and comparative analysis of fungal genomes: a hitchhiker's guide to genomics

Yao-Cheng Lin UGent (2011)
abstract
This thesis describes several genome-sequencing projects such as those from the fungi Laccaria bicolor S238N-H82, Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198, Melampsora laricis-populina 98AG31, Puccinia graminis, Pichia pastoris GS115 and Candida bombicola, as well as the one of the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi CCMP1516. These species are important organisms in many aspects, for instance: L. bicolor and G. intraradices are symbiotic fungi growing associate with trees and present an important ecological niches for promoting tree growth; M. laricis- populina and P. graminis are two devastating fungi threating plants; the tiny yeast P. pastoris is the major protein production platform in the pharmaceutical industry; the biosurfactant production yeast C. bombicola is likely to provide a low ecotoxicity detergent and E. huxleyi places in a unique phylogeny position of chromalveolate and contributes to the global carbon cycle system. The completion of the genome sequence and the subsequent functional studies broaden our understanding of these complex biological systems and promote the species as possible model organisms. However, it is commonly observed that the genome sequencing projects are launched with lots of enthusiasm but often frustratingly difficult to finish. Part of the reason are the ever-increasing expectations regarding quality delivery (both with respect to data and analyses). The Introductory Chapter aims to provide an overview of how best to conduct a genome sequencing project. It explains the importance of understanding the basic biology and genetics of the target organism. It also discusses the latest developments in new (next) generation high throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, how to handle the data and their applications. The emergence of the new HTS technologies brings the whole biology research into a new frontier. For instance, with the help of the new sequencing technologies, we were able to sequence the genome of our interest, namely Pichia pastoris. This tiny yeast, the analysis of which forms the bulk of this thesis, is an important heterologous production platform because its methanol assimilation properties makes it ideally suitable for large scale industrial production. The unique protein assembly pathway of P. pastoris also attracts much basic research interests. We used the new HTS method to sequence and assemble the GS115 genome into four chromosomes and made it publicly available to the research community (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3). The public release of the GS115 brought broader interests on the comparison of GS115 and its parental strains. By sequencing the parental strain of GS115 with different new sequencing platforms, we identified several point mutations in the coding genes that likely contribute to the higher protein translocation efficiency in GS115. The sequence divergence and copy number variation of rDNA between strains also explains the difference of protein production efficiency (Chapter 4). Before 2008, the Sanger sequencing method was the only technology to obtain high quality complete genomes of eukaryotes. Because of the high cost of the Sanger method, regarding the other genome projects discussed in this thesis, it was necessary to team up with many other partners and to rely on the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI) and the Broad Institute to generate the genome sequence. The M. larici-populina srain 98AG31 and the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici strain CRL 75-36-700-3 are two devastating basidiomycete ‘rusts’ that infect poplar and wheat. Lineage-specific gene family expansions in these two rusts highlight the possible role in their obligate biotrophic life-style. Two large sets of effector-like small-secreted proteins with different pri- mary sequence structures were identified in each organism. The in planta-induced transcriptomic data showed upregulation of these lineage-specific genes and they are likely involved in the establishing of the rust-host interaction. An additional immunolocalization study on M. larici-populina confirmed the accumulation of some candidate effectors in the haustoria and infection hyphae, which is described in Chapter 5.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
promoter
UGent
organization
year
type
dissertation (monograph)
subject
keyword
Genetics, Microbiology, Bioinformatics, Plant pathology, Genomics
pages
VIII, 200 pages
publisher
Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences
place of publication
Ghent, Belgium
defense location
Zwijnaarde : Technologiepark (FSVM building: Jozef Schell seminar room)
defense date
2011-03-22 16:00
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
D1
id
1195097
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1195097
date created
2011-03-23 10:01:20
date last changed
2011-03-29 16:28:09
@phdthesis{1195097,
  abstract     = {This thesis describes several genome-sequencing projects such as those from the fungi Laccaria bicolor S238N-H82, Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198, Melampsora laricis-populina 98AG31, Puccinia graminis, Pichia pastoris GS115 and Candida bombicola, as well as the one of the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi CCMP1516. These species are important organisms in many aspects, for instance: L. bicolor and G. intraradices are symbiotic fungi growing associate with trees and present an important ecological niches for promoting tree growth; M. laricis- populina and P. graminis are two devastating fungi threating plants; the tiny yeast P. pastoris is the major protein production platform in the pharmaceutical industry; the biosurfactant production yeast C. bombicola is likely to provide a low ecotoxicity detergent and E. huxleyi places in a unique phylogeny position of chromalveolate and contributes to the global carbon cycle system. The completion of the genome sequence and the subsequent functional studies broaden our understanding of these complex biological systems and promote the species as possible model organisms. However, it is commonly observed that the genome sequencing projects are launched with lots of enthusiasm but often frustratingly difficult to finish. Part of the reason are the ever-increasing expectations regarding quality delivery (both with respect to data and analyses). The Introductory Chapter aims to provide an overview of how best to conduct a genome sequencing project. It explains the importance of understanding the basic biology and genetics of the target organism. It also discusses the latest developments in new (next) generation high throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, how to handle the data and their applications.
The emergence of the new HTS technologies brings the whole biology research into a new frontier. For instance, with the help of the new sequencing technologies, we were able to sequence the genome of our interest, namely Pichia pastoris. This tiny yeast, the analysis of which forms the bulk of this thesis, is an important heterologous production platform because its methanol assimilation properties makes it ideally suitable for large scale industrial production. The unique protein assembly pathway of P. pastoris also attracts much basic research interests. We used the new HTS method to sequence and assemble the GS115 genome into four chromosomes and made it publicly available to the research community (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3). The public release of the GS115 brought broader interests on the comparison of GS115 and its parental strains. By sequencing the parental strain of GS115 with different new sequencing platforms, we identified several point mutations in the coding genes that likely contribute to the higher protein translocation efficiency in GS115. The sequence divergence and copy number variation of rDNA between strains also explains the difference of protein production efficiency (Chapter 4).
Before 2008, the Sanger sequencing method was the only technology to obtain high quality complete genomes of eukaryotes. Because of the high cost of the Sanger method, regarding the other genome projects discussed in this thesis, it was necessary to team up with many other partners and to rely on the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI) and the Broad Institute  to generate the genome sequence. The M. larici-populina srain 98AG31 and the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici strain CRL 75-36-700-3 are two devastating basidiomycete {\textquoteleft}rusts{\textquoteright} that infect poplar and wheat. Lineage-specific gene family expansions in these two rusts highlight the possible role in their obligate biotrophic life-style. Two large sets of effector-like small-secreted proteins with different pri- mary sequence structures were identified in each organism. The in planta-induced transcriptomic data showed upregulation of these lineage-specific genes and they are likely involved in the establishing of the rust-host interaction. An additional immunolocalization study on M. larici-populina confirmed the accumulation of some candidate effectors in the haustoria and infection hyphae, which is described in Chapter 5.},
  author       = {Lin, Yao-Cheng},
  keyword      = {Genetics,Microbiology,Bioinformatics,Plant pathology,Genomics},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {VIII, 200},
  publisher    = {Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {Annotation and comparative analysis of fungal genomes: a hitchhiker's guide to genomics},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Lin, Yao-Cheng. 2011. “Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Fungal Genomes: a Hitchhiker’s Guide to Genomics”. Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences.
APA
Lin, Y.-C. (2011). Annotation and comparative analysis of fungal genomes: a hitchhiker’s guide to genomics. Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences, Ghent, Belgium.
Vancouver
1.
Lin Y-C. Annotation and comparative analysis of fungal genomes: a hitchhiker’s guide to genomics. [Ghent, Belgium]: Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences; 2011.
MLA
Lin, Yao-Cheng. “Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Fungal Genomes: a Hitchhiker’s Guide to Genomics.” 2011 : n. pag. Print.