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Environmental monitoring for safeguards using k(0)-standardized neutron activation analysis

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Abstract
Multi-elemental analysis of samples containing uranium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been generally known as a problematic task due to the numerous radioisotopes produced from the uranium fission when the sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons. In k(0)-standardized NAA (k(0)-NAA), it is possible to correct for this effect through the introduction of k(0)-fission factors. In this work, the aim was to determine the feasibility of k(0)-NAA as a screening technique for accurate and isotopic ratio determination (we further refer to the technique as k(0)-UNAA) and where k(0)-UNAA could be positioned versus the other screening techniques. In k(0)-UNAA, we use an adapted formalism to determine the n(U-235)/n(U-238)-ratio. Several swipe samples spiked with different isotopic ratios were analyzed and demonstrate the feasibility of k(0)-UNAA as a accurate and reliable screening method for the quantification of environmental samples up to several tens of ng. At these levels the uranium concentration can be quantified with a reasonable uncertainty and reliable n(U-235)/n(U-238) isotopic ratio analysis could also be performed.
Keywords
uranium, INTERFERENCE, illicit trafficking, environmental monitoring, k(o)-standardization, safeguards, URANIUM, neutron activation analysis

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MLA
Vermaercke, Peter, et al. “Environmental Monitoring for Safeguards Using k(0)-Standardized Neutron Activation Analysis.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, vol. 57, no. 5, 2010, pp. 2773–76, doi:10.1109/TNS.2010.2052110.
APA
Vermaercke, P., Farina, F., Sneyers, L., Leal, A., & Bruggeman, M. (2010). Environmental monitoring for safeguards using k(0)-standardized neutron activation analysis. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, 57(5), 2773–2776. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2010.2052110
Chicago author-date
Vermaercke, Peter, Fulvio Farina, Liesel Sneyers, Alexandre Leal, and Michel Bruggeman. 2010. “Environmental Monitoring for Safeguards Using k(0)-Standardized Neutron Activation Analysis.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE 57 (5): 2773–76. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2010.2052110.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vermaercke, Peter, Fulvio Farina, Liesel Sneyers, Alexandre Leal, and Michel Bruggeman. 2010. “Environmental Monitoring for Safeguards Using k(0)-Standardized Neutron Activation Analysis.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE 57 (5): 2773–2776. doi:10.1109/TNS.2010.2052110.
Vancouver
1.
Vermaercke P, Farina F, Sneyers L, Leal A, Bruggeman M. Environmental monitoring for safeguards using k(0)-standardized neutron activation analysis. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE. 2010;57(5):2773–6.
IEEE
[1]
P. Vermaercke, F. Farina, L. Sneyers, A. Leal, and M. Bruggeman, “Environmental monitoring for safeguards using k(0)-standardized neutron activation analysis,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 2773–2776, 2010.
@article{1194650,
  abstract     = {{Multi-elemental analysis of samples containing uranium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been generally known as a problematic task due to the numerous radioisotopes produced from the uranium fission when the sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons. In k(0)-standardized NAA (k(0)-NAA), it is possible to correct for this effect through the introduction of k(0)-fission factors. In this work, the aim was to determine the feasibility of k(0)-NAA as a screening technique for accurate and isotopic ratio determination (we further refer to the technique as k(0)-UNAA) and where k(0)-UNAA could be positioned versus the other screening techniques. In k(0)-UNAA, we use an adapted formalism to determine the n(U-235)/n(U-238)-ratio. Several swipe samples spiked with different isotopic ratios were analyzed and demonstrate the feasibility of k(0)-UNAA as a accurate and reliable screening method for the quantification of environmental samples up to several tens of ng. At these levels the uranium concentration can be quantified with a reasonable uncertainty and reliable n(U-235)/n(U-238) isotopic ratio analysis could also be performed.}},
  articleno    = {{2}},
  author       = {{Vermaercke, Peter and Farina, Fulvio and Sneyers, Liesel and Leal, Alexandre and Bruggeman, Michel}},
  issn         = {{0018-9499}},
  journal      = {{IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{uranium,INTERFERENCE,illicit trafficking,environmental monitoring,k(o)-standardization,safeguards,URANIUM,neutron activation analysis}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Marseilles, France}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{2:2773--2:2776}},
  title        = {{Environmental monitoring for safeguards using k(0)-standardized neutron activation analysis}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2010.2052110}},
  volume       = {{57}},
  year         = {{2010}},
}

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