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Survey among Belgian pig producers about the introduction of group housing systems for gestating sows

Frank Tuyttens, Suzy Van Gansbeke and Bart Ampe UGent (2011) JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 89(3). p.845-855
abstract
There is a global move from individual to group housing of gestating sows. In the European Union, individual gestating stalls will be banned by 2013. Just like in other industrialized regions, these stalls have been the standard housing system for intensively kept sows from the 1960s onward in the Flemish region of Belgium. Because the socioeconomic consequences for the pig industry may be far-reaching and because farmer attitude may influence the realization of the hoped-for improvement in animal welfare in practice, we conducted a survey from 2003 until 2009 among representative samples of Flemish pig producers every 2 yr. The share of farms with group housing increased from 10.5% in 2003 to 29.8% in 2007, but then dropped to 24.6% in 2009. It appears that after 2005 users of old group housing systems in particular stopped farming. Because sow herd size increased more on farms with vs. without group housing and because the proportion of the herd that was group-housed also tended to increase between 2003 to 2009, the change to group housing took place faster when expressed at the level of the sow (from 9.1% in 2003 to 34.1% in 2009) instead of farm. The percentage of farmers planning to convert to group housing within 2 yr was 4.1% in 2003, and 6 to 7% thereafter. These were typically young farmers (P = 0.006) with a large sow herd (P < 0.001) and with a likely successor (P = 0.03). Free access stalls were the most common group housing system (31% of farms, 37% of sows). Their popularity is expected to increase further at the expense of electronic feeding stations, ad libitum feeding, and stalls/troughs with manual feed delivery. User satisfaction was generally high but depended on whether or not all gestating sows were kept in group (P < 0.001), the provisioning of environmental enrichment (P = 0.057), and the age (P = 0.012) and type (P = 0.016) of system. The main criteria for choosing a certain group housing system were the investment costs and sow health and welfare. The importance of economic reasons (P = 0.007) and type of labor (P = 0.043) decreased with the age of the system. In 2003 and 2005 the main reason for not having converted to group housing was that farmers would stop keeping sows by 2013. In 2007 and 2009 the reasons mainly concerned uncertainty about the future and maximally delaying the conversion. Belgium is one of the European Union countries where the pig industry is expected to undergo drastic changes during the few years remaining before the ban on individual housing.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
WELFARE, PARITY, swine, BEHAVIOR, pig, group housing, gestation stall, feeding system
journal title
JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
J. Anim. Sci.
volume
89
issue
3
pages
845 - 855
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000287655200030
JCR category
AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
JCR impact factor
2.096 (2011)
JCR rank
4/54 (2011)
JCR quartile
1 (2011)
ISSN
0021-8812
DOI
10.2527/jas.2010-2978
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1193635
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1193635
date created
2011-03-22 10:24:51
date last changed
2012-03-30 00:30:34
@article{1193635,
  abstract     = {There is a global move from individual to group housing of gestating sows. In the European Union, individual gestating stalls will be banned by 2013. Just like in other industrialized regions, these stalls have been the standard housing system for intensively kept sows from the 1960s onward in the Flemish region of Belgium. Because the socioeconomic consequences for the pig industry may be far-reaching and because farmer attitude may influence the realization of the hoped-for improvement in animal welfare in practice, we conducted a survey from 2003 until 2009 among representative samples of Flemish pig producers every 2 yr. The share of farms with group housing increased from 10.5\% in 2003 to 29.8\% in 2007, but then dropped to 24.6\% in 2009. It appears that after 2005 users of old group housing systems in particular stopped farming. Because sow herd size increased more on farms with vs. without group housing and because the proportion of the herd that was group-housed also tended to increase between 2003 to 2009, the change to group housing took place faster when expressed at the level of the sow (from 9.1\% in 2003 to 34.1\% in 2009) instead of farm. The percentage of farmers planning to convert to group housing within 2 yr was 4.1\% in 2003, and 6 to 7\% thereafter. These were typically young farmers (P = 0.006) with a large sow herd (P {\textlangle} 0.001) and with a likely successor (P = 0.03). Free access stalls were the most common group housing system (31\% of farms, 37\% of sows). Their popularity is expected to increase further at the expense of electronic feeding stations, ad libitum feeding, and stalls/troughs with manual feed delivery. User satisfaction was generally high but depended on whether or not all gestating sows were kept in group (P {\textlangle} 0.001), the provisioning of environmental enrichment (P = 0.057), and the age (P = 0.012) and type (P = 0.016) of system. The main criteria for choosing a certain group housing system were the investment costs and sow health and welfare. The importance of economic reasons (P = 0.007) and type of labor (P = 0.043) decreased with the age of the system. In 2003 and 2005 the main reason for not having converted to group housing was that farmers would stop keeping sows by 2013. In 2007 and 2009 the reasons mainly concerned uncertainty about the future and maximally delaying the conversion. Belgium is one of the European Union countries where the pig industry is expected to undergo drastic changes during the few years remaining before the ban on individual housing.},
  author       = {Tuyttens, Frank and Van Gansbeke, Suzy and Ampe, Bart},
  issn         = {0021-8812},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {WELFARE,PARITY,swine,BEHAVIOR,pig,group housing,gestation stall,feeding system},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {845--855},
  title        = {Survey among Belgian pig producers about the introduction of group housing systems for gestating sows},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-2978},
  volume       = {89},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Tuyttens, Frank, Suzy Van Gansbeke, and Bart Ampe. 2011. “Survey Among Belgian Pig Producers About the Introduction of Group Housing Systems for Gestating Sows.” Journal of Animal Science 89 (3): 845–855.
APA
Tuyttens, Frank, Van Gansbeke, S., & Ampe, B. (2011). Survey among Belgian pig producers about the introduction of group housing systems for gestating sows. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, 89(3), 845–855.
Vancouver
1.
Tuyttens F, Van Gansbeke S, Ampe B. Survey among Belgian pig producers about the introduction of group housing systems for gestating sows. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 2011;89(3):845–55.
MLA
Tuyttens, Frank, Suzy Van Gansbeke, and Bart Ampe. “Survey Among Belgian Pig Producers About the Introduction of Group Housing Systems for Gestating Sows.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE 89.3 (2011): 845–855. Print.