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Ecotoxicological mechanisms and models in an impact analysis tool for oil spills

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Abstract
In an international collaborative effort, an impact analysis tool is being developed to predict the effect of accidental oil spills on recruitment and production of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Barents Sea. The tool consisted of three coupled ecological models that describe (1) plankton biomass dynamics, (2) cod larvae growth, and (3) fish stock dynamics. The discussions from a series of workshops are presented in which variables and parameters of the first two ecological models were listed that may be affected by oil-related compounds. In addition, ecotoxicological algorithms are suggested that may be used to quantify such effects and what the challenges and opportunities are for algorithm parameterization. Based on model exercises described in the literature, survival and individual growth of cod larvae, survival and reproduction of zooplankton, and phytoplankton population growth are denoted as variables and parameters from the ecological models that might be affected in case of an oil spill. Because toxicity databases mostly (67%) contain data for freshwater species in temperate environments, parameterization of the ecotoxicological algorithms describing effects on these endpoints in the subarctic marine environment is not straightforward. Therefore, it is proposed that metadata analyses be used to estimate the sensitivity of subarctic marine species from available databases. To perform such analyses and reduce associated uncertainty and variability, mechanistic models of varying complexity, possibly aided by new experimental data, are proposed. Lastly, examples are given of how seasonality in ecosystems may influence chemical effects, in particular in the subarctic environment. Food availability and length of day were identified as important characteristics as these determine nutritional status and phototoxicity, respectively.
Keywords
SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS-GORBUSCHA, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, ECOLOGICAL EFFECT ASSESSMENTS, OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGN, AQUATIC FOOD-WEBS, RISK-ASSESSMENT, PCB BIOACCUMULATION, CRUDE-OIL, CALANUS-FINMARCHICUS, EQUILIBRIUM RATIOS

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Citation

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MLA
De Laender, Frederik, Gro Harlaug Olsen, Tone Frost , et al. “Ecotoxicological Mechanisms and Models in an Impact Analysis Tool for Oil Spills.” JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES 74.7-9 (2011): 605–619. Print.
APA
De Laender, F., Olsen, G. H., Frost , T., Grøsvik, B. E., Grung , M., Hansen , B. H., Hendriks, A. J., et al. (2011). Ecotoxicological mechanisms and models in an impact analysis tool for oil spills. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES, 74(7-9), 605–619. Presented at the 3rd Norwegian Environmental Toxicology Symposium.
Chicago author-date
De Laender, Frederik, Gro Harlaug Olsen, Tone Frost , Bjorn Einar Grøsvik, Merete Grung , Bjorn Henrik Hansen , A Jan Hendriks, et al. 2011. “Ecotoxicological Mechanisms and Models in an Impact Analysis Tool for Oil Spills.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-part A-current Issues 74 (7-9): 605–619.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Laender, Frederik, Gro Harlaug Olsen, Tone Frost , Bjorn Einar Grøsvik, Merete Grung , Bjorn Henrik Hansen , A Jan Hendriks, Morten Hjorth , Colin Janssen, Chris Klok , Trond Nordtug , Mathijs Smit , JoLynn Carroll , and Lionel Camus . 2011. “Ecotoxicological Mechanisms and Models in an Impact Analysis Tool for Oil Spills.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-part A-current Issues 74 (7-9): 605–619.
Vancouver
1.
De Laender F, Olsen GH, Frost T, Grøsvik BE, Grung M, Hansen BH, et al. Ecotoxicological mechanisms and models in an impact analysis tool for oil spills. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES. 2011;74(7-9):605–19.
IEEE
[1]
F. De Laender et al., “Ecotoxicological mechanisms and models in an impact analysis tool for oil spills,” JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES, vol. 74, no. 7–9, pp. 605–619, 2011.
@article{1191614,
  abstract     = {In an international collaborative effort, an impact analysis tool is being developed to predict the effect of accidental oil spills on recruitment and production of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Barents Sea. The tool consisted of three coupled ecological models that describe (1) plankton biomass dynamics, (2) cod larvae growth, and (3) fish stock dynamics. The discussions from a series of workshops are presented in which variables and parameters of the first two ecological models were listed that may be affected by oil-related compounds. In addition, ecotoxicological algorithms are suggested that may be used to quantify such effects and what the challenges and opportunities are for algorithm parameterization. Based on model exercises described in the literature, survival and individual growth of cod larvae, survival and reproduction of zooplankton, and phytoplankton population growth are denoted as variables and parameters from the ecological models that might be affected in case of an oil spill. Because toxicity databases mostly (67%) contain data for freshwater species in temperate environments, parameterization of the ecotoxicological algorithms describing effects on these endpoints in the subarctic marine environment is not straightforward. Therefore, it is proposed that metadata analyses be used to estimate the sensitivity of subarctic marine species from available databases. To perform such analyses and reduce associated uncertainty and variability, mechanistic models of varying complexity, possibly aided by new experimental data, are proposed. Lastly, examples are given of how seasonality in ecosystems may influence chemical effects, in particular in the subarctic environment. Food availability and length of day were identified as important characteristics as these determine nutritional status and phototoxicity, respectively.},
  author       = {De Laender, Frederik and Olsen, Gro Harlaug and Frost , Tone and Grøsvik, Bjorn Einar and Grung , Merete and Hansen , Bjorn Henrik and Hendriks, A Jan and Hjorth , Morten and Janssen, Colin and Klok , Chris and Nordtug , Trond and Smit , Mathijs and Carroll , JoLynn and Camus , Lionel},
  issn         = {1528-7394},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES},
  keywords     = {SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS-GORBUSCHA,POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS,ECOLOGICAL EFFECT ASSESSMENTS,OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGN,AQUATIC FOOD-WEBS,RISK-ASSESSMENT,PCB BIOACCUMULATION,CRUDE-OIL,CALANUS-FINMARCHICUS,EQUILIBRIUM RATIOS},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Bergen, Norway},
  number       = {7-9},
  pages        = {605--619},
  title        = {Ecotoxicological mechanisms and models in an impact analysis tool for oil spills},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2011.550567},
  volume       = {74},
  year         = {2011},
}

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