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Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

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Abstract
Objectives: To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35-74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g/day) were computed according to their degree of food processing (that is, highly, moderately and non-processed foods) using a specifically designed classification system. The contribution (%) of highly processed foods to the centre mean intakes of diet and 26 nutrients (including energy) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database (ENDB). The effect of different possible confounders was also investigated. Results: Highly processed foods were an important source of the nutrients considered, contributing between 61% (Spain) and 78-79% (the Netherlands and Germany) of mean energy intakes. Only two nutrients, beta-carotene (34-46%) and vitamin C (28-36%), had a contribution from highly processed foods below 50% in Nordic countries, in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, whereas for the other nutrients, the contribution varied from 50 to 91% (excluding alcohol). In southern countries (Greece, Spain, Italy and France), the overall contribution of highly processed foods to nutrient intakes was lower and consisted largely of staple or basic foods (for example, bread, pasta/rice, milk, vegetable oils), whereas highly processed foods such as crisp bread, breakfast cereals, margarine and other commercial foods contributed more in Nordic and central European centres. Conclusions: Highly industrially processed foods dominate diets and nutrient patterns in Nordic and central European countries. The greater variations observed within southern countries may reflect both a larger contribution of non/moderately processed staple foods along with a move from traditional to more industrialized dietary patterns.
Keywords
standardisation, processed foods, 24-h dietary recall, industrial foods, nutrient patterns, EPIC-SOFT, MAJOR DIETARY PATTERNS, CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, FATTY-ACIDS, PALEOLITHIC NUTRITION, MEDITERRANEAN DIET, EPIC CALIBRATION, BREAST-CANCER, WEIGHT-GAIN, RISK

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Chicago
Slimani, N, G Deharveng, DAT Southgate, C Biessy, V Chajes, MME van Bakel, MC Boutron-Ruault, et al. 2009. “Contribution of Highly Industrially Processed Foods to the Nutrient Intakes and Patterns of Middle-aged Populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63: S206–S225.
APA
Slimani, N., Deharveng, G., Southgate, D., Biessy, C., Chajes, V., van Bakel, M., Boutron-Ruault, M., et al. (2009). Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 63, S206–S225.
Vancouver
1.
Slimani N, Deharveng G, Southgate D, Biessy C, Chajes V, van Bakel M, et al. Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2009;63:S206–S225.
MLA
Slimani, N, G Deharveng, DAT Southgate, et al. “Contribution of Highly Industrially Processed Foods to the Nutrient Intakes and Patterns of Middle-aged Populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 63 (2009): S206–S225. Print.
@article{1177618,
  abstract     = {Objectives: To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Methods: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35-74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g/day) were computed according to their degree of food processing (that is, highly, moderately and non-processed foods) using a specifically designed classification system. The contribution (\%) of highly processed foods to the centre mean intakes of diet and 26 nutrients (including energy) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database (ENDB). The effect of different possible confounders was also investigated.
Results: Highly processed foods were an important source of the nutrients considered, contributing between 61\% (Spain) and 78-79\% (the Netherlands and Germany) of mean energy intakes. Only two nutrients, beta-carotene (34-46\%) and vitamin C (28-36\%), had a contribution from highly processed foods below 50\% in Nordic countries, in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, whereas for the other nutrients, the contribution varied from 50 to 91\% (excluding alcohol). In southern countries (Greece, Spain, Italy and France), the overall contribution of highly processed foods to nutrient intakes was lower and consisted largely of staple or basic foods (for example, bread, pasta/rice, milk, vegetable oils), whereas highly processed foods such as crisp bread, breakfast cereals, margarine and other commercial foods contributed more in Nordic and central European centres.
Conclusions: Highly industrially processed foods dominate diets and nutrient patterns in Nordic and central European countries. The greater variations observed within southern countries may reflect both a larger contribution of non/moderately processed staple foods along with a move from traditional to more industrialized dietary patterns.},
  author       = {Slimani, N and Deharveng, G and Southgate, DAT and Biessy, C and Chajes, V and van Bakel, MME and Boutron-Ruault, MC and McTaggart, A and Grioni, S and Verkaik-Kloosterman, J and Huybrechts, Inge and Amiano, P and Jenab, M and Vignat, J and Bouckaert, Kimberley and Casagrande, C and Ferrari, P and Zourna, P and Trichopoulou, A and Wirfalt, E and Johansson, G and Rohrmann, S and Illner, AK and Barricarte, A and Rodriguez, L and Touvier, M and Niravong, M and Mulligan, A and Crowe, F and Ocke, MC and van der Schouw, YT and Bendinelli, B and Lauria, C and Brustad, M and Hjartaker, A and Tjonneland, A and Jensen, AM and Riboli, E and Bingham, S},
  issn         = {0954-3007},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {standardisation,processed foods,24-h dietary recall,industrial foods,nutrient patterns,EPIC-SOFT,MAJOR DIETARY PATTERNS,CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,FATTY-ACIDS,PALEOLITHIC NUTRITION,MEDITERRANEAN DIET,EPIC CALIBRATION,BREAST-CANCER,WEIGHT-GAIN,RISK},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {S206--S225},
  title        = {Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.82},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2009},
}

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