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Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

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Abstract
Background: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods: The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results: We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion: Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.
Keywords
HEALTH, PHONE BASE STATIONS, FEASIBILITY, BROADCAST TRANSMITTERS, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, STATISTICAL-ANALYSIS, EXPOSURE METRICS, DOSIMETRY, SYMPTOMS, NETWORKS

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Chicago
Roosli, Martin, Patrizia Frei, John Bolte, Georg Neubauer, Elisabeth Cardis, Maria Feychting, Peter Gajsek, et al. 2010. “Conduct of a Personal Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Measurement Study: Proposed Study Protocol.” Environmental Health 9.
APA
Roosli, M., Frei, P., Bolte, J., Neubauer, G., Cardis, E., Feychting, M., Gajsek, P., et al. (2010). Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 9.
Vancouver
1.
Roosli M, Frei P, Bolte J, Neubauer G, Cardis E, Feychting M, et al. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. 2010;9.
MLA
Roosli, Martin, Patrizia Frei, John Bolte, et al. “Conduct of a Personal Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Measurement Study: Proposed Study Protocol.” ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 9 (2010): n. pag. Print.
@article{1168787,
  abstract     = {Background: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences.
Methods: The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants.
Results: We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures.
Conclusion: Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.},
  articleno    = {23},
  author       = {Roosli, Martin and Frei, Patrizia and Bolte, John and Neubauer, Georg and Cardis, Elisabeth and Feychting, Maria and Gajsek, Peter and Heinrich, Sabine and Joseph, Wout and Mann, Simon and Martens, Luc and Mohler, Evelyn and Parslow, Roger C and Poulsen, Aslak Harbo and Radon, Katja and Schuz, Joachim and Thuroczy, Gyoergy and Viel, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois and Vrijheid, Martine},
  issn         = {1476-069X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH},
  keyword      = {HEALTH,PHONE BASE STATIONS,FEASIBILITY,BROADCAST TRANSMITTERS,COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE,STATISTICAL-ANALYSIS,EXPOSURE METRICS,DOSIMETRY,SYMPTOMS,NETWORKS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-23},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2010},
}

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