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A pilot study on subject-based comprehensive steroid profiling: novel biomarkers to detect testosterone misuse in sports

Pieter Van Renterghem UGent, Peter Van Eenoo UGent, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Martial Saugy and Frans Delbeke UGent (2011) CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY. 75(1). p.134-140
abstract
Context Until now, the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio is the main marker for the detection of testosterone (T) misuse in athletes. As this marker can be influenced by a number of confounding factors, additional steroid profile parameters indicating T misuse can provide substantiating evidence of doping with endogenous steroids. The evaluation of a steroid profile is currently based upon population statistics. As large inter-individual variations exist, a paradigm shift towards subject-based references is ongoing in doping analysis. Objective Proposition of new biomarkers for the detection of testosterone in sports using extensive steroid profiling and an adaptive model based upon Bayesian inference. Subjects Six healthy male volunteers were administered with testosterone undecanoate. Population statistics were performed upon steroid profiles from 2014 male Caucasian athletes participating in official sport competition. Design An extended search for new biomarkers in a comprehensive steroid profile combined with Bayesian inference techniques as used in the athlete biological passport resulted in a selection of additional biomarkers that may improve detection of testosterone misuse in sports. Results Apart from T/E, 4 other steroid ratios (6 alpha-OH-androstenedione/16 alpha-OH-dehydroepiandrostenedione, 4-OH-androstenedione/16 alpha-OH-androstenedione, 7 alpha-OH-testosterone/7 beta-OH-dehydroepiandrostenedione and dihydrotestosterone/5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol) were identified as sensitive urinary biomarkers for T misuse. These new biomarkers were rated according to relative response, parameter stability, detection time and discriminative power. Conclusion Newly selected biomarkers were found suitable for individual referencing within the concept of the Athlete's Biological Passport. The parameters showed improved detection time and discriminative power compared to the T/E ratio. Such biomarkers can support the evidence of doping with small oral doses of testosterone.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
ENDOGENOUS STEROIDS, MASS-SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS, URINARY STEROIDS, DOPING ANALYSIS, T/E RATIO, METABOLITES, POPULATION, VALIDATION, MARKERS, RANGES
journal title
CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
Clin. Endocrinol.
volume
75
issue
1
pages
134 - 140
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000292289200020
JCR category
ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
JCR impact factor
3.168 (2011)
JCR rank
50/121 (2011)
JCR quartile
2 (2011)
ISSN
0300-0664
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.03992.x
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1109152
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1109152
date created
2011-01-24 14:40:59
date last changed
2012-03-14 14:25:20
@article{1109152,
  abstract     = {Context Until now, the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio is the main marker for the detection of testosterone (T) misuse in athletes. As this marker can be influenced by a number of confounding factors, additional steroid profile parameters indicating T misuse can provide substantiating evidence of doping with endogenous steroids. The evaluation of a steroid profile is currently based upon population statistics. As large inter-individual variations exist, a paradigm shift towards subject-based references is ongoing in doping analysis. 
Objective Proposition of new biomarkers for the detection of testosterone in sports using extensive steroid profiling and an adaptive model based upon Bayesian inference. 
Subjects Six healthy male volunteers were administered with testosterone undecanoate. Population statistics were performed upon steroid profiles from 2014 male Caucasian athletes participating in official sport competition. 
Design An extended search for new biomarkers in a comprehensive steroid profile combined with Bayesian inference techniques as used in the athlete biological passport resulted in a selection of additional biomarkers that may improve detection of testosterone misuse in sports. 
Results Apart from T/E, 4 other steroid ratios (6 alpha-OH-androstenedione/16 alpha-OH-dehydroepiandrostenedione, 4-OH-androstenedione/16 alpha-OH-androstenedione, 7 alpha-OH-testosterone/7 beta-OH-dehydroepiandrostenedione and dihydrotestosterone/5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol) were identified as sensitive urinary biomarkers for T misuse. These new biomarkers were rated according to relative response, parameter stability, detection time and discriminative power. 
Conclusion Newly selected biomarkers were found suitable for individual referencing within the concept of the Athlete's Biological Passport. The parameters showed improved detection time and discriminative power compared to the T/E ratio. Such biomarkers can support the evidence of doping with small oral doses of testosterone.},
  author       = {Van Renterghem, Pieter and Van Eenoo, Peter and Sottas, Pierre-Edouard and Saugy, Martial and Delbeke, Frans},
  issn         = {0300-0664},
  journal      = {CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY},
  keyword      = {ENDOGENOUS STEROIDS,MASS-SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS,URINARY STEROIDS,DOPING ANALYSIS,T/E RATIO,METABOLITES,POPULATION,VALIDATION,MARKERS,RANGES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {134--140},
  title        = {A pilot study on subject-based comprehensive steroid profiling: novel biomarkers to detect testosterone misuse in sports},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.03992.x},
  volume       = {75},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Van Renterghem, Pieter, Peter Van Eenoo, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Martial Saugy, and Frans Delbeke. 2011. “A Pilot Study on Subject-based Comprehensive Steroid Profiling: Novel Biomarkers to Detect Testosterone Misuse in Sports.” Clinical Endocrinology 75 (1): 134–140.
APA
Van Renterghem, P., Van Eenoo, P., Sottas, P.-E., Saugy, M., & Delbeke, F. (2011). A pilot study on subject-based comprehensive steroid profiling: novel biomarkers to detect testosterone misuse in sports. CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, 75(1), 134–140.
Vancouver
1.
Van Renterghem P, Van Eenoo P, Sottas P-E, Saugy M, Delbeke F. A pilot study on subject-based comprehensive steroid profiling: novel biomarkers to detect testosterone misuse in sports. CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY. 2011;75(1):134–40.
MLA
Van Renterghem, Pieter, Peter Van Eenoo, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, et al. “A Pilot Study on Subject-based Comprehensive Steroid Profiling: Novel Biomarkers to Detect Testosterone Misuse in Sports.” CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY 75.1 (2011): 134–140. Print.