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Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors

(2010) ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY. 67(11). p.1159-1167
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Abstract
Context: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations. Objectives: To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD. Design: An ADHD and control sibling-pair design. Setting: Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Participants: A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants. Main Outcome Measures: Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task. Results: The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98% to 100% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62% to 82% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit. Conclusions: The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models-a developmental model and an arousal-attention model-of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform developmentally sensitive interventions.
Keywords
GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION, DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, INTRA-SUBJECT VARIABILITY, REACTION-TIME PERFORMANCE, RESPONSE VARIABILITY, SUSTAINED ATTENTION, DELAY AVERSION, GENETIC INFLUENCES, MOLECULAR-GENETICS, INHIBITORY CONTROL

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Kuntsi, Jonna, Alexis C Wood, Fruehling Rijsdijk, Katherine A Johnson, Penelope Andreou, Bjoern Albrecht, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, et al. 2010. “Separation of Cognitive Impairments in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder into 2 Familial Factors.” Archives of General Psychiatry 67 (11): 1159–1167.
APA
Kuntsi, Jonna, Wood, A. C., Rijsdijk, F., Johnson, K. A., Andreou, P., Albrecht, B., Arias-Vasquez, A., et al. (2010). Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY, 67(11), 1159–1167.
Vancouver
1.
Kuntsi J, Wood AC, Rijsdijk F, Johnson KA, Andreou P, Albrecht B, et al. Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY. 2010;67(11):1159–67.
MLA
Kuntsi, Jonna, Alexis C Wood, Fruehling Rijsdijk, et al. “Separation of Cognitive Impairments in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder into 2 Familial Factors.” ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY 67.11 (2010): 1159–1167. Print.
@article{1107042,
  abstract     = {Context: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations.
Objectives: To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD.
Design: An ADHD and control sibling-pair design.
Setting: Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
Participants: A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants.
Main Outcome Measures: Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task.
Results: The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85\% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98\% to 100\% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13\% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62\% to 82\% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit.
Conclusions: The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models-a developmental model and an arousal-attention model-of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform developmentally sensitive interventions.},
  author       = {Kuntsi, Jonna and Wood, Alexis C and Rijsdijk, Fruehling and Johnson, Katherine A and Andreou, Penelope and Albrecht, Bjoern and Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro and Buitelaar, Jan K and McLoughlin, Grainne and Rommelse, Nanda NJ and Sergeant, Joseph A and Barke, Edmund and Uebel, Hendrik and Van der Meere, Jacob and Banaschewski, Tobias and Gill, Michael and Manor, Iris and Miranda, Ana and Mulas, Fernando and Oades, Robert D and Roeyers, Herbert and Rothenberger, Aribert and Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph and Faraone, Stephen V and Asherson, Philip},
  issn         = {0003-990X},
  journal      = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
  keyword      = {GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION,DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,INTRA-SUBJECT VARIABILITY,REACTION-TIME PERFORMANCE,RESPONSE VARIABILITY,SUSTAINED ATTENTION,DELAY AVERSION,GENETIC INFLUENCES,MOLECULAR-GENETICS,INHIBITORY CONTROL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1159--1167},
  title        = {Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors},
  volume       = {67},
  year         = {2010},
}

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