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Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: the frequency-lag hypothesis

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Abstract
To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraint contexts, and were reduced by high-constraint contexts only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production but a frequency-driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production.
Keywords
EYE-MOVEMENTS, SENTENCE CONTEXT, VISUAL WORD RECOGNITION, SPEECH PRODUCTION, FIXATION TIMES, VERBAL FLUENCY, NAMING TIME, COMPREHENSION, PERCEPTION, BILINGUALISM, frequency effect, semantic constraint, reading, production, bilingual

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Chicago
Gollan, Tamar H, Timothy J Slattery, Diane Goldenberg, Eva Van Assche, Wouter Duyck, and Keith Rayner. 2011. “Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-lag Hypothesis.” Journal of Experimental Psychology-general 140 (2): 186–209.
APA
Gollan, T. H., Slattery, T. J., Goldenberg, D., Van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Rayner, K. (2011). Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: the frequency-lag hypothesis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL, 140(2), 186–209.
Vancouver
1.
Gollan TH, Slattery TJ, Goldenberg D, Van Assche E, Duyck W, Rayner K. Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: the frequency-lag hypothesis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL. 2011;140(2):186–209.
MLA
Gollan, Tamar H et al. “Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-lag Hypothesis.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL 140.2 (2011): 186–209. Print.
@article{1096497,
  abstract     = {To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraint contexts, and were reduced by high-constraint contexts only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production but a frequency-driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production.},
  author       = {Gollan, Tamar H and Slattery, Timothy J and Goldenberg, Diane and Van Assche, Eva and Duyck, Wouter and Rayner, Keith},
  issn         = {0096-3445},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
  keywords     = {EYE-MOVEMENTS,SENTENCE CONTEXT,VISUAL WORD RECOGNITION,SPEECH PRODUCTION,FIXATION TIMES,VERBAL FLUENCY,NAMING TIME,COMPREHENSION,PERCEPTION,BILINGUALISM,frequency effect,semantic constraint,reading,production,bilingual},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {186--209},
  title        = {Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: the frequency-lag hypothesis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022256},
  volume       = {140},
  year         = {2011},
}

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