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Cardiopulmonary effects of two constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies

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Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of two different constant rate infusions (CRI) of dexmedetomidine (1 and 1.75 mu g kg-1 hour-1) in experimental ponies. Animals: Six healthy ponies (mean 306 +/- SD 71 kg, 7.0 +/- 1.6 years). Study design: Prospective, randomized, experimental study. Methods: After premedication with intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine (3.5 mu g kg-1), anaesthesia was induced (T0) with ketamine (2.2 mg kg-1 IV) and midazolam (0.06 mg kg-1 IV) and maintained with isoflurane (Fe'ISO 1.50%) in 55% oxygen for 150 minutes. Normocapnia was maintained using artificial ventilation. Three ponies received dexmedetomidine CRIs of 1 and 1.75 mu g kg-1 hour-1 from T30 to T60 and T90 to T120 respectively. In the other three ponies, the order of the doses was reversed. Continuous monitoring included pulse oximetry, electrocardiography, anaesthetic gas monitoring, arterial and central venous pressures. Cardiac ouput (LiDCO technique) was measured and arterial and venous bloods taken every 15 minutes. Cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), arterial and venous oxygen content (CaO2, CvO(2)) and oxygen delivery (circle dot O-2) were calculated. Analysis of variance with separate models for each CRI rate was used to detect differences between values obtained at the end of the CRI and their respective baseline values. A mixed model with these differences as response variable, pony as random effect and treatment and period as fixed effects was applied to find differences between the two CRIs (alpha = 0.05 for all analyses). Results: Heart rate (HR), CI, CaO2, CvO(2) and circle dot O-2 decreased significantly, while significant increases were found in SVR, systolic arterial pressure and right atrial pressure with both infusion rates. No differences were found between the two dexmedetomidine CRI rates. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Although significant, cardiopulmonary effects of the dexmedetomidine CRIs in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies were small, without differences between the two dose rates.
Keywords
constant rate infusion, cardiopulmonary effects, cardiac output, HALOTHANE, DOGS, KETAMINE, MEDETOMIDINE, ANESTHESIA, ADRENOCEPTOR AGONISTS, CARDIAC-OUTPUT, HORSES, CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION, dexmedetomidine, horses, isoflurane, MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION

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Chicago
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Stijn Schauvliege, Luc Duchateau, and Frank Gasthuys. 2010. “Cardiopulmonary Effects of Two Constant Rate Infusions of Dexmedetomidine in Isoflurane Anaesthetized Ponies.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 37 (4): 311–321.
APA
Gozalo Marcilla, M., Schauvliege, S., Duchateau, L., & Gasthuys, F. (2010). Cardiopulmonary effects of two constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 37(4), 311–321.
Vancouver
1.
Gozalo Marcilla M, Schauvliege S, Duchateau L, Gasthuys F. Cardiopulmonary effects of two constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2010;37(4):311–21.
MLA
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Stijn Schauvliege, Luc Duchateau, et al. “Cardiopulmonary Effects of Two Constant Rate Infusions of Dexmedetomidine in Isoflurane Anaesthetized Ponies.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 37.4 (2010): 311–321. Print.
@article{1090598,
  abstract     = {Objective: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of two different constant rate infusions (CRI) of dexmedetomidine (1 and 1.75 mu g kg-1 hour-1) in experimental ponies.
Animals: Six healthy ponies (mean 306 +/- SD 71 kg, 7.0 +/- 1.6 years).
Study design: Prospective, randomized, experimental study.
Methods: After premedication with intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine (3.5 mu g kg-1), anaesthesia was induced (T0) with ketamine (2.2 mg kg-1 IV) and midazolam (0.06 mg kg-1 IV) and maintained with isoflurane (Fe'ISO 1.50\%) in 55\% oxygen for 150 minutes. Normocapnia was maintained using artificial ventilation. Three ponies received dexmedetomidine CRIs of 1 and 1.75 mu g kg-1 hour-1 from T30 to T60 and T90 to T120 respectively. In the other three ponies, the order of the doses was reversed. Continuous monitoring included pulse oximetry, electrocardiography, anaesthetic gas monitoring, arterial and central venous pressures. Cardiac ouput (LiDCO technique) was measured and arterial and venous bloods taken every 15 minutes. Cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), arterial and venous oxygen content (CaO2, CvO(2)) and oxygen delivery (circle dot O-2) were calculated. Analysis of variance with separate models for each CRI rate was used to detect differences between values obtained at the end of the CRI and their respective baseline values. A mixed model with these differences as response variable, pony as random effect and treatment and period as fixed effects was applied to find differences between the two CRIs (alpha = 0.05 for all analyses).
Results: Heart rate (HR), CI, CaO2, CvO(2) and circle dot O-2 decreased significantly, while significant increases were found in SVR, systolic arterial pressure and right atrial pressure with both infusion rates. No differences were found between the two dexmedetomidine CRI rates.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Although significant, cardiopulmonary effects of the dexmedetomidine CRIs in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies were small, without differences between the two dose rates.},
  author       = {Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel and Schauvliege, Stijn and Duchateau, Luc and Gasthuys, Frank},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  keyword      = {constant rate infusion,cardiopulmonary effects,cardiac output,HALOTHANE,DOGS,KETAMINE,MEDETOMIDINE,ANESTHESIA,ADRENOCEPTOR AGONISTS,CARDIAC-OUTPUT,HORSES,CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION,dexmedetomidine,horses,isoflurane,MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {311--321},
  title        = {Cardiopulmonary effects of two constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2010.00537.x},
  volume       = {37},
  year         = {2010},
}

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