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Reduced thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex in smokers

(2010) BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY. 68(11). p.1061-1065
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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Structural deficiencies within the prefrontal cortex might be related to drug-taking behavior that prevails in smokers. Cortical thickness has been found to be a structural modulator of cerebral function and cognition and a subtle correlate of mental disorders. However, to date an analysis of cortical thickness in smokers compared with never-smokers has not been undertaken. METHODS: We acquired high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers and used FreeSurfer to model the gray-white and pial surfaces for each individual cortex to compute the distance between these surfaces to obtain a measure of cortical thickness. The main cortical folds were aligned across individuals with FreeSurfer's surface-based averaging technique to compare whole brain differences in cortical thickness between smokers and never-smokers. RESULTS: Relative to never-smokers, smokers showed greater cortical thinning in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Cortical thickness measures extracted from mOFC correlated negatively with the amount of cigarettes consumed/day and the magnitude of lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke. CONCLUSIONS: The brains of smokers are structurally different from those of never-smokers in a dose-dependent manner. The cortical thinning in mOFC in smokers relative to never-smokers might imply dysfunctions of the brain's reward, impulse control, and decision-making circuits. Related behavioral correlates are suggested to be relevant for smoking initiation and maintenance.
Keywords
VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY, CEREBRAL-BLOOD-FLOW, CHRONIC CIGARETTE-SMOKING, RESTING TOBACCO SMOKERS, CORTICAL THICKNESS, DECISION-MAKING, GRAY-MATTER, ADOLESCENT SMOKERS, PREFRONTAL CORTEX, CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH, Addiction, cortical thickness, orbitofrontal cortex, smoking, nicotine, substance dependence

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MLA
Kühn, Simone, Florian Schubert, and Jürgen Gallinat. “Reduced Thickness in Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex in Smokers.” BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 68.11 (2010): 1061–1065. Print.
APA
Kühn, S., Schubert, F., & Gallinat, J. (2010). Reduced thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex in smokers. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY, 68(11), 1061–1065.
Chicago author-date
Kühn, Simone, Florian Schubert, and Jürgen Gallinat. 2010. “Reduced Thickness in Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex in Smokers.” Biological Psychiatry 68 (11): 1061–1065.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kühn, Simone, Florian Schubert, and Jürgen Gallinat. 2010. “Reduced Thickness in Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex in Smokers.” Biological Psychiatry 68 (11): 1061–1065.
Vancouver
1.
Kühn S, Schubert F, Gallinat J. Reduced thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex in smokers. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY. 2010;68(11):1061–5.
IEEE
[1]
S. Kühn, F. Schubert, and J. Gallinat, “Reduced thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex in smokers,” BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 1061–1065, 2010.
@article{1090299,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Structural deficiencies within the prefrontal cortex might be related to drug-taking behavior that prevails in smokers. Cortical thickness has been found to be a structural modulator of cerebral function and cognition and a subtle correlate of mental disorders. However, to date an analysis of cortical thickness in smokers compared with never-smokers has not been undertaken. METHODS: We acquired high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers and used FreeSurfer to model the gray-white and pial surfaces for each individual cortex to compute the distance between these surfaces to obtain a measure of cortical thickness. The main cortical folds were aligned across individuals with FreeSurfer's surface-based averaging technique to compare whole brain differences in cortical thickness between smokers and never-smokers. RESULTS: Relative to never-smokers, smokers showed greater cortical thinning in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Cortical thickness measures extracted from mOFC correlated negatively with the amount of cigarettes consumed/day and the magnitude of lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke. CONCLUSIONS: The brains of smokers are structurally different from those of never-smokers in a dose-dependent manner. The cortical thinning in mOFC in smokers relative to never-smokers might imply dysfunctions of the brain's reward, impulse control, and decision-making circuits. Related behavioral correlates are suggested to be relevant for smoking initiation and maintenance.},
  author       = {Kühn, Simone and Schubert, Florian and Gallinat, Jürgen },
  issn         = {0006-3223},
  journal      = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY,CEREBRAL-BLOOD-FLOW,CHRONIC CIGARETTE-SMOKING,RESTING TOBACCO SMOKERS,CORTICAL THICKNESS,DECISION-MAKING,GRAY-MATTER,ADOLESCENT SMOKERS,PREFRONTAL CORTEX,CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH,Addiction,cortical thickness,orbitofrontal cortex,smoking,nicotine,substance dependence},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1061--1065},
  title        = {Reduced thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex in smokers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.004},
  volume       = {68},
  year         = {2010},
}

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