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Comparison of three anaesthetic protocols in Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus)

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Abstract
Objective: Investigate physiological and sedative/anaesthetic effects of xylazine, medetomidine or dexmedetomidine combined with ketamine in free-ranging Bennett's wallabies. Study design: Prospective clinical trial. Animals: Twenty-six adult free-ranging Bennett's wallabies. Methods: Animals were darted intramuscularly with one of three treatments: xylazine and ketamine, 2.0 and 15.0 mg kg-1, respectively (XK): medetomidine and ketamine 0.1 and 5.0 mg kg-1 (MK) and dexmedetomidine and ketamine 0.05 and 5.0 mg kg-1 (DMK). Body weights were estimated. If the animal was still laterally recumbent after 45 minutes of anaesthesia, then an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, was administered (XK: 0.4 mg kg-1, MK: 5 mg kg-1, DMK: 2.5 mg kg-1). Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (f(R)) were recorded at 5-minute intervals and temperature at 10-minute intervals. Venous blood was taken 30 minutes after initial injection. Statistical analysis utilized anova. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Animals became recumbent rapidly in all groups. XK animals had muscle twitches, responded to external stimuli, and three animals required additional dosing; this was not observed in the MK and DMK groups. HR (mean +/- SD beats minute-1) in XK (81 +/- 4) was significantly higher than MK (74 +/- 2) and DMK (67 +/- 4). There were no differences in f(R), temperature, blood-gas and biochemical values between groups. More animals in MK (9/10) and DMK (5/6) needed antagonism of anaesthesia compared with XK (1/10). There were no adverse effects after anaesthesia. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Cardio-respiratory effects were similar in all groups. There were fewer muscle twitches and reactions to external stimuli in MK and DMK. Duration of anaesthesia was shorter in XK; most animals in MK and DMK needed atipamezole to assist recovery. All three treatments provided satisfactory sedation/anaesthesia and are suitable for use in Bennett's wallabies.
Keywords
ketamine, medetomidine, dexmedetomidine, Bennett's wallaby, alpha-2 agonists, xylazine, MEDETOMIDINE, DEXMEDETOMIDINE, KETAMINE, CATS, ATIPAMEZOLE

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MLA
Bouts, Tim, Nicola Harrison, Karla Berry, et al. “Comparison of Three Anaesthetic Protocols in Bennett’s Wallabies (Macropus Rufogriseus).” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 37.3 (2010): 207–214. Print.
APA
Bouts, Tim, Harrison, N., Berry, K., Taylor, P., Routh, A., & Gasthuys, F. (2010). Comparison of three anaesthetic protocols in Bennett’s wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 37(3), 207–214.
Chicago author-date
Bouts, Tim, Nicola Harrison, Karla Berry, Polly Taylor, Andrew Routh, and Frank Gasthuys. 2010. “Comparison of Three Anaesthetic Protocols in Bennett’s Wallabies (Macropus Rufogriseus).” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 37 (3): 207–214.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bouts, Tim, Nicola Harrison, Karla Berry, Polly Taylor, Andrew Routh, and Frank Gasthuys. 2010. “Comparison of Three Anaesthetic Protocols in Bennett’s Wallabies (Macropus Rufogriseus).” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 37 (3): 207–214.
Vancouver
1.
Bouts T, Harrison N, Berry K, Taylor P, Routh A, Gasthuys F. Comparison of three anaesthetic protocols in Bennett’s wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2010;37(3):207–14.
IEEE
[1]
T. Bouts, N. Harrison, K. Berry, P. Taylor, A. Routh, and F. Gasthuys, “Comparison of three anaesthetic protocols in Bennett’s wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus),” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 207–214, 2010.
@article{1089905,
  abstract     = {Objective: Investigate physiological and sedative/anaesthetic effects of xylazine, medetomidine or dexmedetomidine combined with ketamine in free-ranging Bennett's wallabies.
Study design: Prospective clinical trial.
Animals: Twenty-six adult free-ranging Bennett's wallabies.
Methods: Animals were darted intramuscularly with one of three treatments: xylazine and ketamine, 2.0 and 15.0 mg kg-1, respectively (XK): medetomidine and ketamine 0.1 and 5.0 mg kg-1 (MK) and dexmedetomidine and ketamine 0.05 and 5.0 mg kg-1 (DMK). Body weights were estimated. If the animal was still laterally recumbent after 45 minutes of anaesthesia, then an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, was administered (XK: 0.4 mg kg-1, MK: 5 mg kg-1, DMK: 2.5 mg kg-1). Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (f(R)) were recorded at 5-minute intervals and temperature at 10-minute intervals. Venous blood was taken 30 minutes after initial injection. Statistical analysis utilized anova. p < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Animals became recumbent rapidly in all groups. XK animals had muscle twitches, responded to external stimuli, and three animals required additional dosing; this was not observed in the MK and DMK groups. HR (mean +/- SD beats minute-1) in XK (81 +/- 4) was significantly higher than MK (74 +/- 2) and DMK (67 +/- 4). There were no differences in f(R), temperature, blood-gas and biochemical values between groups. More animals in MK (9/10) and DMK (5/6) needed antagonism of anaesthesia compared with XK (1/10). There were no adverse effects after anaesthesia.
Conclusion and clinical relevance: Cardio-respiratory effects were similar in all groups. There were fewer muscle twitches and reactions to external stimuli in MK and DMK. Duration of anaesthesia was shorter in XK; most animals in MK and DMK needed atipamezole to assist recovery. All three treatments provided satisfactory sedation/anaesthesia and are suitable for use in Bennett's wallabies.},
  author       = {Bouts, Tim and Harrison, Nicola and Berry, Karla and Taylor, Polly and Routh, Andrew and Gasthuys, Frank},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  keywords     = {ketamine,medetomidine,dexmedetomidine,Bennett's wallaby,alpha-2 agonists,xylazine,MEDETOMIDINE,DEXMEDETOMIDINE,KETAMINE,CATS,ATIPAMEZOLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {207--214},
  title        = {Comparison of three anaesthetic protocols in Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2009.00523.x},
  volume       = {37},
  year         = {2010},
}

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