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Background: Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-). Results: We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N-2) using microsensor measurements, N-15 isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions: Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.
Keywords
IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION, AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION, HUMAN PERIODONTAL-DISEASE, NITROUS-OXIDE, NITRIC-OXIDE CONCENTRATIONS, METHANOGENIC ARCHAEA, NITRATE REDUCTION, ORAL BACTERIA, HUMAN COLON, BIOFILMS

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Chicago
Schreiber, Frank, Peter Stief, Armin Gieseke, Ines M Heisterkamp, Willy Verstraete, Dirk de Beer, and Paul Stoodley. 2010. “Denitrification in Human Dental Plaque.” Bmc Biology 8.
APA
Schreiber, F., Stief, P., Gieseke, A., Heisterkamp, I. M., Verstraete, W., de Beer, D., & Stoodley, P. (2010). Denitrification in human dental plaque. BMC BIOLOGY, 8.
Vancouver
1.
Schreiber F, Stief P, Gieseke A, Heisterkamp IM, Verstraete W, de Beer D, et al. Denitrification in human dental plaque. BMC BIOLOGY. 2010;8.
MLA
Schreiber, Frank, Peter Stief, Armin Gieseke, et al. “Denitrification in Human Dental Plaque.” BMC BIOLOGY 8 (2010): n. pag. Print.
@article{1086809,
  abstract     = {Background: Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-).
Results: We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N-2) using microsensor measurements, N-15 isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH.
Conclusions: Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.},
  articleno    = {24},
  author       = {Schreiber, Frank and Stief, Peter and Gieseke, Armin and Heisterkamp, Ines M and Verstraete, Willy and de Beer, Dirk and Stoodley, Paul},
  issn         = {1741-7007},
  journal      = {BMC BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION,AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION,HUMAN PERIODONTAL-DISEASE,NITROUS-OXIDE,NITRIC-OXIDE CONCENTRATIONS,METHANOGENIC ARCHAEA,NITRATE REDUCTION,ORAL BACTERIA,HUMAN COLON,BIOFILMS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Denitrification in human dental plaque},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-8-24},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2010},
}

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