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Beyond the dual pathway model : evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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Abstract
Objective: The dual pathway model explains neuro-psychological heterogeneity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of dissociable cognitive and motivational deficits each affecting some but not other patients. We explore whether deficits in temporal processing might constitute a third dissociable neuropsychological component of ADHD. Method: Nine tasks designed to tap three domains (inhibitory control, delay aversion and temporal processing) were administered to ADHD probands (n=71; ages 6 to 17 years), their siblings (n=71; 65 unaffected by ADHD) and a group of non-ADHD controls (n=50). IQ and working memory were measured. Results: Temporal processing, inhibitory control and delay-related deficits represented independent neuropsychological components. ADHD children differed from controls on all factors. For ADHD patients, the co-occurrence of inhibitory, temporal processing and delay-related deficits was no greater than expected by chance with substantial groups of patients showing only one problem. Domain-specific patterns of familial co-segregation provided evidence for the validity of neuropsychological subgroupings. Conclusion: The current results illustrate the neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD and initial support for a triple pathway model. The findings need to be replicated in larger samples.
Keywords
inhibitory control, timing, heterogeneity, delay aversion, ADHD, DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, TIME PERCEPTION, RESPONSE-INHIBITION, WORKING-MEMORY, NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ENDOPHENOTYPES, EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS, ADHD SYMPTOMS, CAUSAL-MODELS, CHILDREN, AVERSION

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MLA
Barke, Edmund, et al. “Beyond the Dual Pathway Model : Evidence for the Dissociation of Timing, Inhibitory, and Delay-Related Impairments in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, vol. 49, no. 4, 2010, pp. 345–55, doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2009.12.018.
APA
Barke, E., Bitsakou, P., & Thompson, M. (2010). Beyond the dual pathway model : evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, 49(4), 345–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2009.12.018
Chicago author-date
Barke, Edmund, Paraskevi Bitsakou, and Margaret Thompson. 2010. “Beyond the Dual Pathway Model : Evidence for the Dissociation of Timing, Inhibitory, and Delay-Related Impairments in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY 49 (4): 345–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2009.12.018.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Barke, Edmund, Paraskevi Bitsakou, and Margaret Thompson. 2010. “Beyond the Dual Pathway Model : Evidence for the Dissociation of Timing, Inhibitory, and Delay-Related Impairments in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY 49 (4): 345–355. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2009.12.018.
Vancouver
1.
Barke E, Bitsakou P, Thompson M. Beyond the dual pathway model : evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY. 2010;49(4):345–55.
IEEE
[1]
E. Barke, P. Bitsakou, and M. Thompson, “Beyond the dual pathway model : evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 345–355, 2010.
@article{1085270,
  abstract     = {{Objective: The dual pathway model explains neuro-psychological heterogeneity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of dissociable cognitive and motivational deficits each affecting some but not other patients. We explore whether deficits in temporal processing might constitute a third dissociable neuropsychological component of ADHD. Method: Nine tasks designed to tap three domains (inhibitory control, delay aversion and temporal processing) were administered to ADHD probands (n=71; ages 6 to 17 years), their siblings (n=71; 65 unaffected by ADHD) and a group of non-ADHD controls (n=50). IQ and working memory were measured. Results: Temporal processing, inhibitory control and delay-related deficits represented independent neuropsychological components. ADHD children differed from controls on all factors. For ADHD patients, the co-occurrence of inhibitory, temporal processing and delay-related deficits was no greater than expected by chance with substantial groups of patients showing only one problem. Domain-specific patterns of familial co-segregation provided evidence for the validity of neuropsychological subgroupings. Conclusion: The current results illustrate the neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD and initial support for a triple pathway model. The findings need to be replicated in larger samples.}},
  author       = {{Barke, Edmund and Bitsakou, Paraskevi and Thompson, Margaret}},
  issn         = {{0890-8567}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY}},
  keywords     = {{inhibitory control,timing,heterogeneity,delay aversion,ADHD,DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,TIME PERCEPTION,RESPONSE-INHIBITION,WORKING-MEMORY,NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ENDOPHENOTYPES,EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS,ADHD SYMPTOMS,CAUSAL-MODELS,CHILDREN,AVERSION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{345--355}},
  title        = {{Beyond the dual pathway model : evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2009.12.018}},
  volume       = {{49}},
  year         = {{2010}},
}

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