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Monitoring of vitamin E status of dry, early and mid-late lactating organic dairy cows fed conserved roughages during the indoor period and factors influencing forage vitamin E levels

Annelies Beeckman (UGent) , Jo Vicca, Gijs Van Ranst (UGent) , Geert Janssens (UGent) and Veerle Fievez (UGent)
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Abstract
Analysis of blood plasma of 60 cows selected on six Flemish organic dairy farms revealed that on average 12% of all samples and on one farm up to 28% of the organic cows showed plasma vitamin E concentrations less than 3.0 lg/ml, which is considered the minimum level to avoid health risks due to vitamin E shortages. Furthermore, this study showed early lactating and dry cows to be more at risk in relation to animals in mid-late lactation. In European organic farming, vitamin supplements are only allowed if granted by the local authority to satisfy daily requirements. Therefore, the vitamin E content of the feedstuffs used on the farms was determined. Grass clover silage (GCS) and mixed silage had significantly more vitamin E than hay, maize or grain (p < 0.05) [mean (SD): 52 (35), 29 (20), 4.5 (1.7), 4.9 (4.4) and 7.1 (3.8) mg/kg DM, respectively]. Apparently, variation in the vitamin E content in the silage samples was huge. Hence, the vitamin E content of ryegrass, white and red clover was determined in a second lab scale experiment and the effects of wilting, DM content and supplementation of ensiling additives were investigated. Fresh ryegrass had a higher vitamin E content than white and red clover (p < 0.05) [156 (11.3), 49.3 (0.67) and 74.3 (5.73) lg/g DM, respectively]. These differences remained after the wilting or ensiling. Supplementation of formic acid or lactic acid bacteria at ensiling had no significant effect on the vitamin E content. Overall, it can be concluded that GCS is the most important source of vitamin E in organic dairy farming. A legal possibility for caserelated supplementation should be retained in organic dairy farming as approximately 18% of all dry and early lactating cows were at risk of vitamin E shortage.
Keywords
vitamin E, organic dairy, clover, PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, BETA-CAROTENE, E SUPPLEMENTATION, SELENIUM, SILAGE, PLASMA, CATTLE, SERUM, REQUIREMENTS

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MLA
Beeckman, Annelies, Jo Vicca, Gijs Van Ranst, et al. “Monitoring of Vitamin E Status of Dry, Early and Mid-late Lactating Organic Dairy Cows Fed Conserved Roughages During the Indoor Period and Factors Influencing Forage Vitamin E Levels.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION 94.6 (2010): 736–746. Print.
APA
Beeckman, A., Vicca, J., Van Ranst, G., Janssens, G., & Fievez, V. (2010). Monitoring of vitamin E status of dry, early and mid-late lactating organic dairy cows fed conserved roughages during the indoor period and factors influencing forage vitamin E levels. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION, 94(6), 736–746.
Chicago author-date
Beeckman, Annelies, Jo Vicca, Gijs Van Ranst, Geert Janssens, and Veerle Fievez. 2010. “Monitoring of Vitamin E Status of Dry, Early and Mid-late Lactating Organic Dairy Cows Fed Conserved Roughages During the Indoor Period and Factors Influencing Forage Vitamin E Levels.” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94 (6): 736–746.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Beeckman, Annelies, Jo Vicca, Gijs Van Ranst, Geert Janssens, and Veerle Fievez. 2010. “Monitoring of Vitamin E Status of Dry, Early and Mid-late Lactating Organic Dairy Cows Fed Conserved Roughages During the Indoor Period and Factors Influencing Forage Vitamin E Levels.” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94 (6): 736–746.
Vancouver
1.
Beeckman A, Vicca J, Van Ranst G, Janssens G, Fievez V. Monitoring of vitamin E status of dry, early and mid-late lactating organic dairy cows fed conserved roughages during the indoor period and factors influencing forage vitamin E levels. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. 2010;94(6):736–46.
IEEE
[1]
A. Beeckman, J. Vicca, G. Van Ranst, G. Janssens, and V. Fievez, “Monitoring of vitamin E status of dry, early and mid-late lactating organic dairy cows fed conserved roughages during the indoor period and factors influencing forage vitamin E levels,” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 736–746, 2010.
@article{1083313,
  abstract     = {Analysis of blood plasma of 60 cows selected on six Flemish organic dairy farms revealed that on average 12% of all samples and on one farm up to 28% of the organic cows showed plasma vitamin E concentrations less than 3.0 lg/ml, which is considered the minimum level to avoid health risks due to vitamin E shortages. Furthermore, this study showed early lactating and dry cows to be more at risk in relation to animals in mid-late lactation. In European organic farming, vitamin supplements are only allowed if granted by the local authority to satisfy daily requirements. Therefore, the vitamin E content of the feedstuffs used on the farms was determined. Grass clover silage (GCS) and mixed silage had significantly more vitamin E than hay, maize or grain (p < 0.05) [mean (SD): 52 (35), 29 (20), 4.5 (1.7), 4.9 (4.4) and 7.1 (3.8) mg/kg DM, respectively]. Apparently, variation in the vitamin E content in the silage samples was huge. Hence, the vitamin E content of ryegrass, white and red clover was determined in a second lab scale experiment and the effects of wilting, DM content and supplementation of ensiling additives were investigated. Fresh ryegrass had a higher vitamin E content than white and red clover (p < 0.05) [156 (11.3), 49.3 (0.67) and 74.3 (5.73) lg/g DM, respectively]. These differences remained after the wilting or ensiling. Supplementation of formic acid or lactic acid bacteria at ensiling had no significant effect on the vitamin E content. Overall, it can be concluded that GCS is the most important source of vitamin E in organic dairy farming. A legal possibility for caserelated supplementation should be retained in organic dairy farming as approximately 18% of all dry and early lactating cows were at risk of vitamin E shortage.},
  author       = {Beeckman, Annelies and Vicca, Jo and Van Ranst, Gijs and Janssens, Geert and Fievez, Veerle},
  issn         = {0931-2439},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION},
  keywords     = {vitamin E,organic dairy,clover,PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL,BETA-CAROTENE,E SUPPLEMENTATION,SELENIUM,SILAGE,PLASMA,CATTLE,SERUM,REQUIREMENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {736--746},
  title        = {Monitoring of vitamin E status of dry, early and mid-late lactating organic dairy cows fed conserved roughages during the indoor period and factors influencing forage vitamin E levels},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00956.x},
  volume       = {94},
  year         = {2010},
}

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