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High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba

(2011) ANNALS OF BOTANY. 107(2). p.293-302
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Abstract
Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 mu m were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R-2 = 0.995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R-2 = 0.986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R-2 = 0.243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined.
Keywords
RING WIDTH, QUANTIFICATION, TOMOGRAPHY, STANDING TREES, NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY, X-RAY DENSITOMETRY, COEFFICIENTS, PROFILES, High-resolution X-ray tomography, neutron imaging, drilling resistance, Terminalia superba, wood density

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Chicago
De Ridder, Maaike, Jan Van den Bulcke, Dries Vansteenkiste, Denis Van Loo, Manuel Dierick, Bert Masschaele, Yoni De Witte, et al. 2011. “High-resolution Proxies for Wood Density Variations in Terminalia Superba.” Annals of Botany 107 (2): 293–302.
APA
De Ridder, Maaike, Van den Bulcke, J., Vansteenkiste, D., Van Loo, D., Dierick, M., Masschaele, B., De Witte, Y., et al. (2011). High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba. ANNALS OF BOTANY, 107(2), 293–302.
Vancouver
1.
De Ridder M, Van den Bulcke J, Vansteenkiste D, Van Loo D, Dierick M, Masschaele B, et al. High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba. ANNALS OF BOTANY. 2011;107(2):293–302.
MLA
De Ridder, Maaike, Jan Van den Bulcke, Dries Vansteenkiste, et al. “High-resolution Proxies for Wood Density Variations in Terminalia Superba.” ANNALS OF BOTANY 107.2 (2011): 293–302. Print.
@article{1073823,
  abstract     = {Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 mu m were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. \& Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R-2 = 0.995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R-2 = 0.986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R-2 = 0.243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined.},
  author       = {De Ridder, Maaike and Van den Bulcke, Jan and Vansteenkiste, Dries and Van Loo, Denis and Dierick, Manuel and Masschaele, Bert and De Witte, Yoni and Mannes, David and Lehmann, Eberhard and Beeckman, Hans and Van Hoorebeke, Luc and Van Acker, Joris},
  issn         = {0305-7364},
  journal      = {ANNALS OF BOTANY},
  keyword      = {RING WIDTH,QUANTIFICATION,TOMOGRAPHY,STANDING TREES,NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY,X-RAY DENSITOMETRY,COEFFICIENTS,PROFILES,High-resolution X-ray tomography,neutron imaging,drilling resistance,Terminalia superba,wood density},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {293--302},
  title        = {High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq224},
  volume       = {107},
  year         = {2011},
}

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