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Evaluation of hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical agitation for the spray application of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)

Eva Brusselman, Maurice Moens UGent, Walter Steurbaut UGent and David Nuyttens (2010) BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 20(4). p.339-351
abstract
The application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is generally done using standard spray application techniques. However, in contrast to chemical pesticides, these biological antagonists must remain viable during and after the application process. For the application of EPN, a good agitation system is indispensable as the nematodes tend to sediment fast in a spray tank without agitation. Three agitation systems, viz. mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic agitation were tested for their ability to keep Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) suspended in an undamaged way. Hydraulic agitation was tested using a centrifugal and a diaphragm pump. Nematode damage was quantified based on viability and infectivity of the EPN. The ability of the agitation system to keep the nematodes in suspension was examined by comparing the nematode concentration observed in the samples taken at different agitation times. Only the hydraulic agitation using the centrifugal pump damaged the nematodes. After 120 min of recirculation, only 19.3% of the nematodes survived. Infectivity was even reduced to 0%. An additional experiment revealed that the temperature rise, from 21.7 to 45.4 degrees C, was responsible for the observed nematode damage. The concentration measurements showed that the pneumatic agitation was unstable. Agitation during 120 min using the other agitation systems resulted in a significant loss of nematodes at 15 cm above the spray tank bottom. In conclusion, mechanical and hydraulic agitation using a diaphragm pump can be recommended when S. carpocapsae is applied, although attention should be paid to possible nematode loss during application.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
entomopathogenic nematodes, spray application, Steinernema carpocapsae, agitation systems, PEST-CONTROL AGENT, ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES, BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL, VIABILITY, TEMPERATURE, LIQUID, SYSTEM
journal title
BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Biocontrol Sci. Technol.
volume
20
issue
4
pages
339 - 351
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000274528900001
JCR category
ENTOMOLOGY
JCR impact factor
0.882 (2010)
JCR rank
43/83 (2010)
JCR quartile
3 (2010)
ISSN
0958-3157
DOI
10.1080/09583150903484144
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
1063787
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-1063787
date created
2010-10-26 07:49:41
date last changed
2010-10-28 13:28:55
@article{1063787,
  abstract     = {The application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is generally done using standard spray application techniques. However, in contrast to chemical pesticides, these biological antagonists must remain viable during and after the application process. For the application of EPN, a good agitation system is indispensable as the nematodes tend to sediment fast in a spray tank without agitation. Three agitation systems, viz. mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic agitation were tested for their ability to keep Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) suspended in an undamaged way. Hydraulic agitation was tested using a centrifugal and a diaphragm pump. Nematode damage was quantified based on viability and infectivity of the EPN. The ability of the agitation system to keep the nematodes in suspension was examined by comparing the nematode concentration observed in the samples taken at different agitation times. Only the hydraulic agitation using the centrifugal pump damaged the nematodes. After 120 min of recirculation, only 19.3\% of the nematodes survived. Infectivity was even reduced to 0\%. An additional experiment revealed that the temperature rise, from 21.7 to 45.4 degrees C, was responsible for the observed nematode damage. The concentration measurements showed that the pneumatic agitation was unstable. Agitation during 120 min using the other agitation systems resulted in a significant loss of nematodes at 15 cm above the spray tank bottom. In conclusion, mechanical and hydraulic agitation using a diaphragm pump can be recommended when S. carpocapsae is applied, although attention should be paid to possible nematode loss during application.},
  author       = {Brusselman, Eva and Moens, Maurice and Steurbaut, Walter and Nuyttens, David },
  issn         = {0958-3157},
  journal      = {BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {entomopathogenic nematodes,spray application,Steinernema carpocapsae,agitation systems,PEST-CONTROL AGENT,ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES,BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL,VIABILITY,TEMPERATURE,LIQUID,SYSTEM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {339--351},
  title        = {Evaluation of hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical agitation for the spray application of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583150903484144},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2010},
}

Chicago
Brusselman, Eva, Maurice Moens, Walter Steurbaut, and David Nuyttens. 2010. “Evaluation of Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Mechanical Agitation for the Spray Application of Steinernema Carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae).” Biocontrol Science and Technology 20 (4): 339–351.
APA
Brusselman, E., Moens, M., Steurbaut, W., & Nuyttens, D. (2010). Evaluation of hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical agitation for the spray application of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 20(4), 339–351.
Vancouver
1.
Brusselman E, Moens M, Steurbaut W, Nuyttens D. Evaluation of hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical agitation for the spray application of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2010;20(4):339–51.
MLA
Brusselman, Eva, Maurice Moens, Walter Steurbaut, et al. “Evaluation of Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Mechanical Agitation for the Spray Application of Steinernema Carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae).” BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 20.4 (2010): 339–351. Print.