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Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'

(2010) EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL. 31(19). p.2338-2350
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Abstract
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the present study is to establish reference and normal values for PWV based on a large European population. We gathered data from 16 867 subjects and patients from 13 different centres across eight European countries, in which PWV and basic clinical parameters were measured. Of these, 11 092 individuals were free from overt CV disease, non-diabetic and untreated by either anti-hypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs and constituted the reference value population, of which the subset with optimal/normal blood pressures (BPs) (n = 1455) is the normal value population. Prior to data pooling, PWV values were converted to a common standard using established conversion formulae. Subjects were categorized by age decade and further subdivided according to BP categories. Pulse wave velocity increased with age and BP category; the increase with age being more pronounced for higher BP categories and the increase with BP being more important for older subjects. The distribution of PWV with age and BP category is described and reference values for PWV are established. Normal values are proposed based on the PWV values observed in the non-hypertensive subpopulation who had no additional CV risk factors. The present study is the first to establish reference and normal values for PWV, combining a sizeable European population after standardizing results for different methods of PWV measurement.
Keywords
Arteriosclerosis, Blood pressure, Arteries, Aged, Adult, Humans, Pulse, Pulse wave velocity, Stiffness, AORTIC STIFFNESS, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS, IMPACT, MORTALITY, DISEASE, HYPERTENSION, SURVIVAL, DISTANCE, STROKE, ADULTS

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Chicago
Mattace-Raso, Francesco US, Albert Hofman, Germaine C Verwoert, Jacqueline CM Witteman, Ian Wilkinson, John Cockcroft, Carmel McEniery, et al. 2010. “Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People and in the Presence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: ‘Establishing Normal and Reference Values’.” European Heart Journal 31 (19): 2338–2350.
APA
Mattace-Raso, F. U., Hofman, A., Verwoert, G. C., Witteman, J. C., Wilkinson, I., Cockcroft, J., McEniery, C., et al. (2010). Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: “establishing normal and reference values.” EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, 31(19), 2338–2350.
Vancouver
1.
Mattace-Raso FU, Hofman A, Verwoert GC, Witteman JC, Wilkinson I, Cockcroft J, et al. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: “establishing normal and reference values.”EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL. 2010;31(19):2338–50.
MLA
Mattace-Raso, Francesco US, Albert Hofman, Germaine C Verwoert, et al. “Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People and in the Presence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: ‘Establishing Normal and Reference Values’.” EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL 31.19 (2010): 2338–2350. Print.
@article{1062922,
  abstract     = {Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the present study is to establish reference and normal values for PWV based on a large European population.
We gathered data from 16 867 subjects and patients from 13 different centres across eight European countries, in which PWV and basic clinical parameters were measured. Of these, 11 092 individuals were free from overt CV disease, non-diabetic and untreated by either anti-hypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs and constituted the reference value population, of which the subset with optimal/normal blood pressures (BPs) (n = 1455) is the normal value population. Prior to data pooling, PWV values were converted to a common standard using established conversion formulae. Subjects were categorized by age decade and further subdivided according to BP categories. Pulse wave velocity increased with age and BP category; the increase with age being more pronounced for higher BP categories and the increase with BP being more important for older subjects. The distribution of PWV with age and BP category is described and reference values for PWV are established. Normal values are proposed based on the PWV values observed in the non-hypertensive subpopulation who had no additional CV risk factors.
The present study is the first to establish reference and normal values for PWV, combining a sizeable European population after standardizing results for different methods of PWV measurement.},
  author       = {Mattace-Raso, Francesco US and Hofman, Albert and Verwoert, Germaine C and Witteman, Jacqueline CM and Wilkinson, Ian and Cockcroft, John and McEniery, Carmel and Yasmin, Y and Laurent, Stephane and Boutouyrie, Pierre and Bozec, Erwan and Hansen, Tine Willum and Torp-Pedersen, Christian and Ibsen, Hans and Jeppesen, Jorgen and VERMEERSCH, SEBASTIAN and Rietzschel, Ernst and De Buyzere, Marc and Gillebert, Thierry and Van Bortel, Lucas and Segers, Patrick and Vlachopoulos, Charalambos and Aznaouridis, Constantinos and Stefanadis, Christodoulos and Benetos, Athanase and Labat, Carlos and Lacolley, Patrick and Stehouwer, Coen DA and Nijpels, Giel and Dekker, Jacqueline M and Ferreira, Isabel and Twisk, Jos WR and Czernichow, Sebastien and Galan, Pilar and Hercberg, Serge and Pannier, Bruno and Guerin, Alain and London, Gerard and Cruickshank, J Kennedy and Anderson, Simon G and Paini, Anna and Rosei, Enrico Agabiti and Muiesan, Maria Lorenza and Salvetti, Massimo and Filipovsky, Jan and Seidlerova, Jitka and Dolejsova, Milena},
  issn         = {0195-668X},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {Arteriosclerosis,Blood pressure,Arteries,Aged,Adult,Humans,Pulse,Pulse wave velocity,Stiffness,AORTIC STIFFNESS,ARTERIAL STIFFNESS,IMPACT,MORTALITY,DISEASE,HYPERTENSION,SURVIVAL,DISTANCE,STROKE,ADULTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {19},
  pages        = {2338--2350},
  title        = {Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq165},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2010},
}

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