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The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

(2010) NATURE GENETICS. 42(10). p.833-839
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Abstract
We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica). We show that a relatively recent (> 50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy of eudicots. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pyreae and the genus Malus, relative to major Rosaceae taxa, identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. Expansion of gene families reported to be involved in fruit development may explain formation of the pome, a Pyreae-specific false fruit that develops by proliferation of the basal part of the sepals, the receptacle. In apple, a subclade of MADS-box genes, normally involved in flower and fruit development, is expanded to include 15 members, as are other gene families involved in Rosaceae-specific metabolism, such as transport and assimilation of sorbitol.
Keywords
SORBITOL TRANSPORTERS, MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT, CULTIVATED APPLE, GENUS MALUS, EVOLUTION, ROSACEAE, GENES, CLASSIFICATION, IDENTIFICATION, PLANTS

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Citation

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Chicago
Velasco, Riccardo, Andrey Zharkikh, Jason Affourtit, Amit Dhingra, Alessandro Cestaro, Ananth Kalyanaraman, Paolo Fontana, et al. 2010. “The Genome of the Domesticated Apple (Malus x Domestica Borkh.).” Nature Genetics 42 (10): 833–839.
APA
Velasco, R., Zharkikh, A., Affourtit, J., Dhingra, A., Cestaro, A., Kalyanaraman, A., Fontana, P., et al. (2010). The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). NATURE GENETICS, 42(10), 833–839.
Vancouver
1.
Velasco R, Zharkikh A, Affourtit J, Dhingra A, Cestaro A, Kalyanaraman A, et al. The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). NATURE GENETICS. 2010;42(10):833–9.
MLA
Velasco, Riccardo, Andrey Zharkikh, Jason Affourtit, et al. “The Genome of the Domesticated Apple (Malus x Domestica Borkh.).” NATURE GENETICS 42.10 (2010): 833–839. Print.
@article{1061997,
  abstract     = {We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica). We show that a relatively recent ({\textrangle} 50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy of eudicots. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pyreae and the genus Malus, relative to major Rosaceae taxa, identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. Expansion of gene families reported to be involved in fruit development may explain formation of the pome, a Pyreae-specific false fruit that develops by proliferation of the basal part of the sepals, the receptacle. In apple, a subclade of MADS-box genes, normally involved in flower and fruit development, is expanded to include 15 members, as are other gene families involved in Rosaceae-specific metabolism, such as transport and assimilation of sorbitol.},
  author       = {Velasco, Riccardo and Zharkikh, Andrey and Affourtit, Jason and Dhingra, Amit and Cestaro, Alessandro and Kalyanaraman, Ananth and Fontana, Paolo and Bhatnagar, Satish K and Troggio, Michela and Pruss, Dmitry and Salvi, Silvio and Pindo, Massimo and Baldi, Paolo and Castelletti, Sara and Cavaiuolo, Marina and Coppola, Giuseppina and Costa, Fabrizio and Cova, Valentina and Dal Ri, Antonio and Goremykin, Vadim and Komjanc, Matteo and Longhi, Sara and Magnago, Pierluigi and Malacarne, Giulia and Malnoy, Mickael and Micheletti, Diego and Moretto, Marco and Perazzolli, Michele and Si-Ammour, Azeddine and Vezzulli, Silvia and Zini, Elena and Eldredge, Glenn and Fitzgerald, Lisa M and Gutin, Natalia and Lanchbury, Jerry and Macalma, Teresita and Mitchell, Jeff T and Reid, Julia and Wardell, Bryan and Kodira, Chinnappa and Chen, Zhoutao and Desany, Brian and Niazi, Faheem and Palmer, Melinda and Koepke, Tyson and Jiwan, Derick and Schaeffer, Scott and Krishnan, Vandhana and Wu, Changjun and Chu, Vu T and King, Stephen T and Vick, Jessica and Tao, Quanzhou and Mraz, Amy and Stormo, Aimee and Stormo, Keith and Bogden, Robert and Ederle, Davide and Stella, Alessandra and Vecchietti, Alberto and Kater, Martin M and Masiero, Simona and Lasserre, Pauline and Lespinasse, Yves and Allan, Andrew C and Bus, Vincent and Chagne, David and Crowhurst, Ross N and Gleave, Andrew P and Lavezzo, Enrico and Fawcett, Jeffrey and Proost, Sebastian and Rouz{\'e}, Pierre and Sterck, Lieven and Toppo, Stefano and Lazzari, Barbara and Hellens, Roger P and Durel, Charles-Eric and Gutin, Alexander and Bumgarner, Roger E and Gardiner, Susan E and Skolnick, Mark and Egholm, Michael and Van de Peer, Yves and Salamini, Francesco and Viola, Roberto},
  issn         = {1061-4036},
  journal      = {NATURE GENETICS},
  keyword      = {SORBITOL TRANSPORTERS,MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT,CULTIVATED APPLE,GENUS MALUS,EVOLUTION,ROSACEAE,GENES,CLASSIFICATION,IDENTIFICATION,PLANTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {833--839},
  title        = {The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.654},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2010},
}

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