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Abstract
This paper is a record of the work of an informal, interdisciplinary group, which contributed to the development of what has come to be known as foul-release coatings. These 'non-stick', non-toxic, antifouling coatings are essentially low surface energy, silicone elastomeric materials, which can be applied by airless spray. The paper opens with an account of the development of antifouling provision, the nature of biofouling and a review of the adhesion mechanisms of diatom slimes, macroalgae and barnacles. The physics and chemistry of low surface energy coatings are then described, followed by the specific research evidence of the difficulty of settlement and adhesion of biofouling to these coatings. The development of a practical product as an applicable low surface energy antifouling, is outlined, followed by an account of ongoing research into the surface characteristics and fluid drag of these novel coatings, not only on ship hulls but also on propellers. The paper closes with some account of the world-wide environmental and economic advantages of foul-release coatings.
Keywords
frictional resistance, Adhesion, Surface energy, Fouling, Antifouling coatings, Sprayers, Silicone resins, roughness, marine coatings, Elastomers, Drag (hindrance), Hulls (structures), Settlements, Propellers, Vessels, Slime

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Chicago
Anderson, Colin, Mehmet Atlar, Maureen Callow, Maxim Candries, Alex Milne, and Robert Townsin. 2003. “The Development of Foul-release Coatings for Seagoing Vessels.” Proceedings of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology. Part B, Journal of Marine Design and Operations 2003 (B4): 11–23.
APA
Anderson, C., Atlar, M., Callow, M., Candries, M., Milne, A., & Townsin, R. (2003). The development of foul-release coatings for seagoing vessels. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. PART B, JOURNAL OF MARINE DESIGN AND OPERATIONS, 2003(B4), 11–23.
Vancouver
1.
Anderson C, Atlar M, Callow M, Candries M, Milne A, Townsin R. The development of foul-release coatings for seagoing vessels. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. PART B, JOURNAL OF MARINE DESIGN AND OPERATIONS. 2003;2003(B4):11–23.
MLA
Anderson, Colin, Mehmet Atlar, Maureen Callow, et al. “The Development of Foul-release Coatings for Seagoing Vessels.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. PART B, JOURNAL OF MARINE DESIGN AND OPERATIONS 2003.B4 (2003): 11–23. Print.
@article{1041294,
  abstract     = {This paper is a record of the work of an informal, interdisciplinary group, which contributed to the development of what has come to be known as foul-release coatings. These 'non-stick', non-toxic, antifouling coatings are essentially low surface energy, silicone elastomeric materials, which can be applied by airless spray. The paper opens with an account of the development of antifouling provision, the nature of biofouling and a review of the adhesion mechanisms of diatom slimes, macroalgae and barnacles. The physics and chemistry of low surface energy coatings are then described, followed by the specific research evidence of the difficulty of settlement and adhesion of biofouling to these coatings. The development of a practical product as an applicable low surface energy antifouling, is outlined, followed by an account of ongoing research into the surface characteristics and fluid drag of these novel coatings, not only on ship hulls but also on propellers. The paper closes with some account of the world-wide environmental and economic advantages of foul-release coatings.},
  author       = {Anderson, Colin and Atlar, Mehmet and Callow, Maureen and Candries, Maxim and Milne, Alex and Townsin, Robert},
  issn         = {1476-1556},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. PART B, JOURNAL OF MARINE DESIGN AND OPERATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {B4},
  pages        = {11--23},
  title        = {The development of foul-release coatings for seagoing vessels},
  url          = {http://www.biosciences-labs.bham.ac.uk/callowj/ent/Atlar\%20et\%20al\_IMarest\%202004.pdf},
  volume       = {2003},
  year         = {2003},
}