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Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN21, is a tonoplast-localized protein required for secondary wall formation in fibers

(2010) PLANT JOURNAL. 63(3). p.469-483
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Abstract
By combining Zinnia elegans in vitro tracheary element genomics with reverse genetics in Arabidopsis, we have identified a new upstream component of secondary wall formation in xylary and interfascicular fibers. Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN 21 (MtN21), encodes a plant-specific, predicted integral membrane protein, and is a member of the plant drug/metabolite exporter (P-DME) family (transporter classification number: TC 2.A.7.3). Although WAT1 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the plant, its expression is preferentially associated with vascular tissues, including developing xylem vessels and fibers. WAT1:GFP fusion protein analysis demonstrated that WAT1 is localized to the tonoplast. Analysis of wat1 mutants revealed two cell wall-related phenotypes in stems: a defect in cell elongation, resulting in a dwarfed habit and little to no secondary cell walls in fibers. Secondary walls of vessel elements were unaffected by the mutation. The secondary wall phenotype was supported by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of wat1 and wild-type stems, as many transcripts and metabolites involved in secondary wall formation were reduced in abundance. Unexpectedly, these experiments also revealed a modification in tryptophan (Trp) and auxin metabolism that might contribute to the wat1 phenotype. Together, our data demonstrate an essential role for the WAT1 tonoplast protein in the control of secondary cell wall formation in fibers.
Keywords
NODULIN21-like, secondary cell wall, Arabidopsis, fiber development, tonoplast, plant drug, metabolite exporter, CELL-WALL, TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN, GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, ESCHERICHIA-COLI, WOOD FORMATION, GENES, AUXIN, IDENTIFICATION

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Citation

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MLA
Ranocha, Philippe, Nicolas Denance, Ruben Vanholme, et al. “Walls Are Thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis Homolog of Medicago Truncatula NODULIN21, Is a Tonoplast-localized Protein Required for Secondary Wall Formation in Fibers.” PLANT JOURNAL 63.3 (2010): 469–483. Print.
APA
Ranocha, P., Denance, N., Vanholme, R., Freydier, A., Martinez, Y., Hoffmann, L., Kohler, L., et al. (2010). Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN21, is a tonoplast-localized protein required for secondary wall formation in fibers. PLANT JOURNAL, 63(3), 469–483.
Chicago author-date
Ranocha, Philippe, Nicolas Denance, Ruben Vanholme, Amandine Freydier, Yves Martinez, Laurent Hoffmann, Lothar Kohler, et al. 2010. “Walls Are Thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis Homolog of Medicago Truncatula NODULIN21, Is a Tonoplast-localized Protein Required for Secondary Wall Formation in Fibers.” Plant Journal 63 (3): 469–483.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ranocha, Philippe, Nicolas Denance, Ruben Vanholme, Amandine Freydier, Yves Martinez, Laurent Hoffmann, Lothar Kohler, Cecile Pouzet, Jean-Pierre Renou, Bjorn Sundberg, Wout Boerjan, and Deborah Goffner. 2010. “Walls Are Thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis Homolog of Medicago Truncatula NODULIN21, Is a Tonoplast-localized Protein Required for Secondary Wall Formation in Fibers.” Plant Journal 63 (3): 469–483.
Vancouver
1.
Ranocha P, Denance N, Vanholme R, Freydier A, Martinez Y, Hoffmann L, et al. Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN21, is a tonoplast-localized protein required for secondary wall formation in fibers. PLANT JOURNAL. 2010;63(3):469–83.
IEEE
[1]
P. Ranocha et al., “Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN21, is a tonoplast-localized protein required for secondary wall formation in fibers,” PLANT JOURNAL, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 469–483, 2010.
@article{1038798,
  abstract     = {By combining Zinnia elegans in vitro tracheary element genomics with reverse genetics in Arabidopsis, we have identified a new upstream component of secondary wall formation in xylary and interfascicular fibers. Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN 21 (MtN21), encodes a plant-specific, predicted integral membrane protein, and is a member of the plant drug/metabolite exporter (P-DME) family (transporter classification number: TC 2.A.7.3). Although WAT1 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the plant, its expression is preferentially associated with vascular tissues, including developing xylem vessels and fibers. WAT1:GFP fusion protein analysis demonstrated that WAT1 is localized to the tonoplast. Analysis of wat1 mutants revealed two cell wall-related phenotypes in stems: a defect in cell elongation, resulting in a dwarfed habit and little to no secondary cell walls in fibers. Secondary walls of vessel elements were unaffected by the mutation. The secondary wall phenotype was supported by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of wat1 and wild-type stems, as many transcripts and metabolites involved in secondary wall formation were reduced in abundance. Unexpectedly, these experiments also revealed a modification in tryptophan (Trp) and auxin metabolism that might contribute to the wat1 phenotype. Together, our data demonstrate an essential role for the WAT1 tonoplast protein in the control of secondary cell wall formation in fibers.},
  author       = {Ranocha, Philippe and Denance, Nicolas and Vanholme, Ruben and Freydier, Amandine and Martinez, Yves and Hoffmann, Laurent and Kohler, Lothar and Pouzet, Cecile and Renou, Jean-Pierre and Sundberg, Bjorn and Boerjan, Wout and Goffner, Deborah},
  issn         = {0960-7412},
  journal      = {PLANT JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {NODULIN21-like,secondary cell wall,Arabidopsis,fiber development,tonoplast,plant drug,metabolite exporter,CELL-WALL,TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS,TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN,GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY,MASS-SPECTROMETRY,ESCHERICHIA-COLI,WOOD FORMATION,GENES,AUXIN,IDENTIFICATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {469--483},
  title        = {Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN21, is a tonoplast-localized protein required for secondary wall formation in fibers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04256.x},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2010},
}

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