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Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle

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Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the circadian rhythm of blood metabolic parameters associated with summer heat stress (HS) in dairy cows. Ten healthy lactating Holstein Friesian cows were followed during HS for three successive days at six different time points. Blood was sampled from each cow starting from 07:00AM; at 4-h intervals. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity were recorded, and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC) and urea were measured in each blood sample. The THI values were >68 at all times of the day, and the highest values were recorded at 11:00AM, 03:00PM and 07:00PM (80.9, 83.7, and 80.8, respectively). All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT coinciding with higher THI values (93±4 and 39.6±0.1; 90.2±3.4, and 40.1±0.1; 87.6±4.1, and 39.8±0.1, respectively, P<0.05). The concentrations of glucose were the lowest at 11:00AM and 03:00PM (3.75±0.1 and 3.44±0.1 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05). Decreased glucose concentrations coincided with increased NEFA concentrations, (0.43±0.01 and 0.56±0.02 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05), and were highly negatively correlated (r=−0.50, P<0.001). The highest urea and TC concentrations were registered at 11:00AM (6.11±0.15 mmol/L and 109.9±2.2 mg/dl, respectively) whereas the lowest urea and TC values were recorded at 03:00AM (4.97±0.18 mmol/L and 99.5± 1.7 mg/dl, respectively, P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that there was a circadian variation in glucose, NEFA, urea, and TC resulting in the most unfavorable metabolic condition during the hottest moment of the day in dairy cattle. Earlier work revealed that HS-metabolic changes are reflected in the follicular fluid. The circadian changes observed in the present study associated with HS may imply that also the microenvironment of the oocyte is affected.
Keywords
NONESTERIFIED-FATTY-ACIDS, Metabolic changes, FOLLICULAR-FLUID, MILK-PRODUCTION, HOLSTEIN COWS, IN-VITRO, POSTPARTUM, PLASMA, REPRODUCTION, TEMPERATURE, ENVIRONMENT, Circadian rhythm, Negative energy balance, High-producing dairy cattle, Heat stress

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MLA
Shehab El Deen, Mohamed Ahmed MM, Moustafa S Fadel, Ann Van Soom, et al. “Circadian Rhythm of Metabolic Changes Associated with Summer Heat Stress in High-producing Dairy Cattle.” TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION 42.6 (2010): 1119–1125. Print.
APA
Shehab El Deen, M. A. M., Fadel, M. S., Van Soom, A., Saleh, S. Y., Maes, D., & Leroy, J. L. (2010). Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle. TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION, 42(6), 1119–1125.
Chicago author-date
Shehab El Deen, Mohamed Ahmed MM, Moustafa S Fadel, Ann Van Soom, Sherif Y Saleh, Dominiek Maes, and Jo LMR Leroy. 2010. “Circadian Rhythm of Metabolic Changes Associated with Summer Heat Stress in High-producing Dairy Cattle.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 42 (6): 1119–1125.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Shehab El Deen, Mohamed Ahmed MM, Moustafa S Fadel, Ann Van Soom, Sherif Y Saleh, Dominiek Maes, and Jo LMR Leroy. 2010. “Circadian Rhythm of Metabolic Changes Associated with Summer Heat Stress in High-producing Dairy Cattle.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 42 (6): 1119–1125.
Vancouver
1.
Shehab El Deen MAM, Fadel MS, Van Soom A, Saleh SY, Maes D, Leroy JL. Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle. TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION. 2010;42(6):1119–25.
IEEE
[1]
M. A. M. Shehab El Deen, M. S. Fadel, A. Van Soom, S. Y. Saleh, D. Maes, and J. L. Leroy, “Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle,” TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1119–1125, 2010.
@article{1009934,
  abstract     = {The current study aimed to investigate the circadian rhythm of blood metabolic parameters associated with summer heat stress (HS) in dairy cows. Ten healthy lactating Holstein Friesian cows were followed during HS for three successive days at six different time points. Blood was sampled from each cow starting from 07:00AM; at 4-h intervals. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity were recorded, and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC) and urea were measured in each blood sample. The THI values were >68 at all times of the day, and the highest values were recorded at 11:00AM, 03:00PM and 07:00PM (80.9, 83.7, and 80.8, respectively). All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT coinciding with higher THI values (93±4 and 39.6±0.1; 90.2±3.4, and 40.1±0.1; 87.6±4.1, and 39.8±0.1, respectively, P<0.05). The concentrations of glucose were the lowest at 11:00AM and 03:00PM (3.75±0.1 and 3.44±0.1 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05). Decreased glucose concentrations coincided with increased NEFA concentrations, (0.43±0.01 and 0.56±0.02 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05), and were highly negatively correlated (r=−0.50, P<0.001). The highest urea and TC concentrations were registered at 11:00AM (6.11±0.15 mmol/L and 109.9±2.2 mg/dl, respectively) whereas the lowest urea and TC values were recorded at 03:00AM (4.97±0.18 mmol/L and 99.5± 1.7 mg/dl, respectively, P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that there was a circadian variation in glucose, NEFA, urea, and TC resulting in the most unfavorable metabolic condition during the hottest moment of the day in dairy cattle. Earlier work revealed that HS-metabolic changes are reflected in the follicular fluid. The circadian changes observed in the present study associated with HS may imply that also the microenvironment of the oocyte is affected.},
  author       = {Shehab El Deen, Mohamed Ahmed MM and Fadel, Moustafa S and Van Soom, Ann and Saleh, Sherif Y and Maes, Dominiek and Leroy, Jo LMR},
  issn         = {0049-4747},
  journal      = {TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION},
  keywords     = {NONESTERIFIED-FATTY-ACIDS,Metabolic changes,FOLLICULAR-FLUID,MILK-PRODUCTION,HOLSTEIN COWS,IN-VITRO,POSTPARTUM,PLASMA,REPRODUCTION,TEMPERATURE,ENVIRONMENT,Circadian rhythm,Negative energy balance,High-producing dairy cattle,Heat stress},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1119--1125},
  title        = {Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9534-1},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2010},
}

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