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Anatomical knowledge enhancement through echocardiography and videos, with a spotlight on cognitive load, self‐efficacy, and motivation

Vicky Vandenbossche (UGent) , Martin Valcke (UGent) , Emmanuel Audenaert (UGent) and Wouter Willaert (UGent)
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Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of integrating ultrasound into undergraduate medical curricula. However, empirical evidence is lacking as to its effect on anatomy learning and related student cognition. Therefore, the present study compared the impact of echocardiography-based instruction with narrated videos on students' understanding of anatomical relationships, as well as the interaction with students' autonomous motivation, self-efficacy beliefs, mental load, and attitudes. Second-year medical students were given the opportunity to enroll in a supplementary booster course about cardiac anatomy. On the base of a randomized controlled trial with a cross-over design, we studied the effect of taking this course on spatial anatomical knowledge. After completing a pre-test (T0), students were allocated randomly to either the echocardiography-based teaching condition (cohort A) or the narrated anatomy video condition (cohort B). Next, participants were crossed over to the alternative intervention. Immediately after each phase in the intervention, students were asked to rate their mental load. Additionally, a spatial anatomical knowledge test, an autonomous motivation scale, and a self-efficacy scale were administered before (T0) and after the first intervention (T1) and at the end of the study (T2). Finally, each student completed a perception-based survey. The study design allowed a comparative evaluation of both interventions at T1, while the cross-over design facilitated the assessment of the most optimal sequencing in the interventions at T2. A total of 206 students participated (cohort A: n = 99, cohort B: n = 107). At T1, no significant differences in the knowledge test and the autonomous motivation scale were observed between cohorts A and B. However, cohort A showed higher self-efficacy beliefs compared to cohort B (p = 0.043). Moreover, cohort A reported higher levels of perceived mental load (p < 0.001). At T2, the results showed that neither sequence of interventions resulted in significant differences in anatomy scores, autonomous motivation, or self-efficacy. However, a significant difference in mental load was found again, with students in cohort B reporting a higher level of mental load (p < 0.001). Finally, based on the perception-based survey, students reported favorably on the echocardiography experience. In conclusion, the hands-on echocardiography sessions were highly appreciated by the medical students. After participating in the ultrasound sessions, they reported higher levels of self-efficacy beliefs compared to the video-based condition. However, despite embodied cognition principles, students in the echocardiography condition did not outperform students in the narrated anatomy video condition. The reported levels of mental load in the ultrasound condition could explain these findings.
Keywords
Embryology, General Medicine, Histology, Anatomy, undergraduates, self-efficacy, medical education, gross anatomy education, echocardiography, cognitive load, autonomous motivation, anatomy video

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MLA
Vandenbossche, Vicky, et al. “Anatomical Knowledge Enhancement through Echocardiography and Videos, with a Spotlight on Cognitive Load, Self‐efficacy, and Motivation.” ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION, Wiley, 2024, doi:10.1002/ase.2398.
APA
Vandenbossche, V., Valcke, M., Audenaert, E., & Willaert, W. (2024). Anatomical knowledge enhancement through echocardiography and videos, with a spotlight on cognitive load, self‐efficacy, and motivation. ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.2398
Chicago author-date
Vandenbossche, Vicky, Martin Valcke, Emmanuel Audenaert, and Wouter Willaert. 2024. “Anatomical Knowledge Enhancement through Echocardiography and Videos, with a Spotlight on Cognitive Load, Self‐efficacy, and Motivation.” ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.2398.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vandenbossche, Vicky, Martin Valcke, Emmanuel Audenaert, and Wouter Willaert. 2024. “Anatomical Knowledge Enhancement through Echocardiography and Videos, with a Spotlight on Cognitive Load, Self‐efficacy, and Motivation.” ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION. doi:10.1002/ase.2398.
Vancouver
1.
Vandenbossche V, Valcke M, Audenaert E, Willaert W. Anatomical knowledge enhancement through echocardiography and videos, with a spotlight on cognitive load, self‐efficacy, and motivation. ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION. 2024;
IEEE
[1]
V. Vandenbossche, M. Valcke, E. Audenaert, and W. Willaert, “Anatomical knowledge enhancement through echocardiography and videos, with a spotlight on cognitive load, self‐efficacy, and motivation,” ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION, 2024.
@article{01HPP1G2KTQ4DPVAP0EZ930257,
  abstract     = {{In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of integrating ultrasound into undergraduate medical curricula. However, empirical evidence is lacking as to its effect on anatomy learning and related student cognition. Therefore, the present study compared the impact of echocardiography-based instruction with narrated videos on students' understanding of anatomical relationships, as well as the interaction with students' autonomous motivation, self-efficacy beliefs, mental load, and attitudes. Second-year medical students were given the opportunity to enroll in a supplementary booster course about cardiac anatomy. On the base of a randomized controlled trial with a cross-over design, we studied the effect of taking this course on spatial anatomical knowledge. After completing a pre-test (T0), students were allocated randomly to either the echocardiography-based teaching condition (cohort A) or the narrated anatomy video condition (cohort B). Next, participants were crossed over to the alternative intervention. Immediately after each phase in the intervention, students were asked to rate their mental load. Additionally, a spatial anatomical knowledge test, an autonomous motivation scale, and a self-efficacy scale were administered before (T0) and after the first intervention (T1) and at the end of the study (T2). Finally, each student completed a perception-based survey. The study design allowed a comparative evaluation of both interventions at T1, while the cross-over design facilitated the assessment of the most optimal sequencing in the interventions at T2. A total of 206 students participated (cohort A: n = 99, cohort B: n = 107). At T1, no significant differences in the knowledge test and the autonomous motivation scale were observed between cohorts A and B. However, cohort A showed higher self-efficacy beliefs compared to cohort B (p = 0.043). Moreover, cohort A reported higher levels of perceived mental load (p < 0.001). At T2, the results showed that neither sequence of interventions resulted in significant differences in anatomy scores, autonomous motivation, or self-efficacy. However, a significant difference in mental load was found again, with students in cohort B reporting a higher level of mental load (p < 0.001). Finally, based on the perception-based survey, students reported favorably on the echocardiography experience. In conclusion, the hands-on echocardiography sessions were highly appreciated by the medical students. After participating in the ultrasound sessions, they reported higher levels of self-efficacy beliefs compared to the video-based condition. However, despite embodied cognition principles, students in the echocardiography condition did not outperform students in the narrated anatomy video condition. The reported levels of mental load in the ultrasound condition could explain these findings.}},
  author       = {{Vandenbossche, Vicky and Valcke, Martin and Audenaert, Emmanuel and Willaert, Wouter}},
  issn         = {{1935-9772}},
  journal      = {{ANATOMICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION}},
  keywords     = {{Embryology,General Medicine,Histology,Anatomy,undergraduates,self-efficacy,medical education,gross anatomy education,echocardiography,cognitive load,autonomous motivation,anatomy video}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  publisher    = {{Wiley}},
  title        = {{Anatomical knowledge enhancement through echocardiography and videos, with a spotlight on cognitive load, self‐efficacy, and motivation}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1002/ase.2398}},
  year         = {{2024}},
}

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