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Pleistocene climate changes, and not agricultural spread, accounts for range expansion and admixture in the dominant grassland species Lolium perenne L.

(2019) Journal of Biogeography. 46(7). p.1451-1465
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Abstract
Aim Grasslands have been pivotal in the development of herbivore breeding since the Neolithic and still represent the most widespread agricultural land use across Europe. However, it remains unclear whether the current large-scale genetic variation of plant species found in natural grasslands of Europe is the result of human activities or natural processes. Location Europe. Taxon Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass). Methods We reconstructed the phylogeographic history of L. perenne, a dominant grassland species, using 481 natural populations, including 11 populations of closely related taxa. We combined Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) and pool-Sequencing (pool-Seq) to obtain high-quality allele frequency calls of ~500 k SNP loci. We performed genetic structure analyses and demographic reconstructions based on the site frequency spectrum (SFS). We additionally used the same genotyping protocol to assess the genomic diversity of a set of 32 cultivars representative of the L. perenne cultivars widely used for forage purposes. Results Expansion across Europe took place during the Würm glaciation (12–110 kya), a cooling period that decreased the dominance of trees in favour of grasses. Splits and admixtures in L. perenne fit historical climate changes in the Mediterranean basin. The development of agriculture in Europe (7–3.5 kya), that caused an increase in the abundance of grasslands, did not have an effect on the demographic patterns of L. perenne. We found that most modern cultivars are closely related to natural diversity from north-western Europe. Thus, modern cultivars do not represent the wide genetic variation found in natural populations. Main conclusions Demographic events in L. perenne can be explained by the changing climatic conditions during the Pleistocene. Natural populations maintain a wide genomic variability at continental scale that has been minimally exploited by recent breeding activities. This variability constitutes valuable standing genetic variation for future adaptation of grasslands to climate change, safeguarding the agricultural services they provide.
Keywords
Ecology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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Citation

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MLA
Blanco‐Pastor, José Luis, et al. “Pleistocene Climate Changes, and Not Agricultural Spread, Accounts for Range Expansion and Admixture in the Dominant Grassland Species Lolium Perenne L.” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 46, no. 7, Wiley, 2019, pp. 1451–65, doi:10.1111/jbi.13587.
APA
Blanco‐Pastor, J. L., Manel, S., Barre, P., Roschanski, A. M., Willner, E., Dehmer, K. J., … Sampoux, J. (2019). Pleistocene climate changes, and not agricultural spread, accounts for range expansion and admixture in the dominant grassland species Lolium perenne L. Journal of Biogeography, 46(7), 1451–1465. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13587
Chicago author-date
Blanco‐Pastor, José Luis, Stéphanie Manel, Philippe Barre, Anna M. Roschanski, Evelin Willner, Klaus J. Dehmer, Mathew Hegarty, et al. 2019. “Pleistocene Climate Changes, and Not Agricultural Spread, Accounts for Range Expansion and Admixture in the Dominant Grassland Species Lolium Perenne L.” Journal of Biogeography 46 (7): 1451–65. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13587.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Blanco‐Pastor, José Luis, Stéphanie Manel, Philippe Barre, Anna M. Roschanski, Evelin Willner, Klaus J. Dehmer, Mathew Hegarty, Hilde Muylle, Tom Ruttink, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Thomas Ledauphin, Abraham Escobar‐Gutiérrez, and Jean‐Paul Sampoux. 2019. “Pleistocene Climate Changes, and Not Agricultural Spread, Accounts for Range Expansion and Admixture in the Dominant Grassland Species Lolium Perenne L.” Journal of Biogeography 46 (7): 1451–1465. doi:10.1111/jbi.13587.
Vancouver
1.
Blanco‐Pastor JL, Manel S, Barre P, Roschanski AM, Willner E, Dehmer KJ, et al. Pleistocene climate changes, and not agricultural spread, accounts for range expansion and admixture in the dominant grassland species Lolium perenne L. Journal of Biogeography. 2019;46(7):1451–65.
IEEE
[1]
J. L. Blanco‐Pastor et al., “Pleistocene climate changes, and not agricultural spread, accounts for range expansion and admixture in the dominant grassland species Lolium perenne L.,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1451–1465, 2019.
@article{01HP3WAD0ZHRVCJVNQK7ZHZV8F,
  abstract     = {{Aim
Grasslands have been pivotal in the development of herbivore breeding since the Neolithic and still represent the most widespread agricultural land use across Europe. However, it remains unclear whether the current large-scale genetic variation of plant species found in natural grasslands of Europe is the result of human activities or natural processes.

Location
Europe.

Taxon
Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass).

Methods
We reconstructed the phylogeographic history of L. perenne, a dominant grassland species, using 481 natural populations, including 11 populations of closely related taxa. We combined Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) and pool-Sequencing (pool-Seq) to obtain high-quality allele frequency calls of ~500 k SNP loci. We performed genetic structure analyses and demographic reconstructions based on the site frequency spectrum (SFS). We additionally used the same genotyping protocol to assess the genomic diversity of a set of 32 cultivars representative of the L. perenne cultivars widely used for forage purposes.

Results
Expansion across Europe took place during the Würm glaciation (12–110 kya), a cooling period that decreased the dominance of trees in favour of grasses. Splits and admixtures in L. perenne fit historical climate changes in the Mediterranean basin. The development of agriculture in Europe (7–3.5 kya), that caused an increase in the abundance of grasslands, did not have an effect on the demographic patterns of L. perenne. We found that most modern cultivars are closely related to natural diversity from north-western Europe. Thus, modern cultivars do not represent the wide genetic variation found in natural populations.

Main conclusions
Demographic events in L. perenne can be explained by the changing climatic conditions during the Pleistocene. Natural populations maintain a wide genomic variability at continental scale that has been minimally exploited by recent breeding activities. This variability constitutes valuable standing genetic variation for future adaptation of grasslands to climate change, safeguarding the agricultural services they provide.}},
  author       = {{Blanco‐Pastor, José Luis and Manel, Stéphanie and Barre, Philippe and Roschanski, Anna M. and Willner, Evelin and Dehmer, Klaus J. and Hegarty, Mathew and Muylle, Hilde and Ruttink, Tom and Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel and Ledauphin, Thomas and Escobar‐Gutiérrez, Abraham and Sampoux, Jean‐Paul}},
  issn         = {{0305-0270}},
  journal      = {{Journal of Biogeography}},
  keywords     = {{Ecology,Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{1451--1465}},
  publisher    = {{Wiley}},
  title        = {{Pleistocene climate changes, and not agricultural spread, accounts for range expansion and admixture in the dominant grassland species Lolium perenne L.}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13587}},
  volume       = {{46}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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