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Divergent population responses following salamander mass mortalities and declines driven by the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

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Abstract
<jats:p> Understanding wildlife responses to novel threats is vital in counteracting biodiversity loss. The emerging pathogen <jats:italic>Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans</jats:italic> ( <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic> ) causes dramatic declines in European salamander populations, and is considered an imminent threat to global amphibian biodiversity. However, real-life disease outcomes remain largely uncharacterized. We performed a multidisciplinary assessment of the longer-term impacts of <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic> on highly susceptible fire salamander ( <jats:italic>Salamandra salamandra</jats:italic> ) populations, by comparing four of the earliest known outbreak sites to uninfected sites. Based on large-scale monitoring efforts, we found population persistence in strongly reduced abundances to over a decade after <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic> invasion, but also the extinction of an initially small-sized population. In turn, we found that host responses varied, and <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic> detection remained low, within surviving populations. Demographic analyses indicated an ongoing scarcity of large reproductive adults with potential for recruitment failure, while spatial comparisons indicated a population remnant persisting within aberrant habitat. Additionally, we detected no early signs of severe genetic deterioration, yet nor of increased host resistance. Beyond offering additional context to <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic> -driven salamander declines, results highlight how the impacts of emerging hypervirulent pathogens can be unpredictable and vary across different levels of biological complexity, and how limited pathogen detectability after population declines may complicate surveillance efforts. </jats:p>

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MLA
Erens, Jesse, et al. “Divergent Population Responses Following Salamander Mass Mortalities and Declines Driven by the Emerging Pathogen Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 290, no. 2007, The Royal Society, 2023, doi:10.1098/rspb.2023.0510.
APA
Erens, J., Preissler, K., Speybroeck, J., Beukema, W., Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., Stark, T., … Pasmans, F. (2023). Divergent population responses following salamander mass mortalities and declines driven by the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 290(2007). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2023.0510
Chicago author-date
Erens, Jesse, Kathleen Preissler, Jeroen Speybroeck, Wouter Beukema, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Tariq Stark, Arnaud Laudelout, et al. 2023. “Divergent Population Responses Following Salamander Mass Mortalities and Declines Driven by the Emerging Pathogen Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 290 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2023.0510.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Erens, Jesse, Kathleen Preissler, Jeroen Speybroeck, Wouter Beukema, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Tariq Stark, Arnaud Laudelout, Thierry Kinet, Benedikt R. Schmidt, An Martel, Sebastian Steinfartz, and Frank Pasmans. 2023. “Divergent Population Responses Following Salamander Mass Mortalities and Declines Driven by the Emerging Pathogen Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 290 (2007). doi:10.1098/rspb.2023.0510.
Vancouver
1.
Erens J, Preissler K, Speybroeck J, Beukema W, Spitzen-van der Sluijs A, Stark T, et al. Divergent population responses following salamander mass mortalities and declines driven by the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2023;290(2007).
IEEE
[1]
J. Erens et al., “Divergent population responses following salamander mass mortalities and declines driven by the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 290, no. 2007, 2023.
@article{01HFPTDATT1XG6Z95P1MBXF822,
  abstract     = {{<jats:p>
            Understanding wildlife responses to novel threats is vital in counteracting biodiversity loss. The emerging pathogen
            <jats:italic>Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans</jats:italic>
            (
            <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic>
            ) causes dramatic declines in European salamander populations, and is considered an imminent threat to global amphibian biodiversity. However, real-life disease outcomes remain largely uncharacterized. We performed a multidisciplinary assessment of the longer-term impacts of
            <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic>
            on highly susceptible fire salamander (
            <jats:italic>Salamandra salamandra</jats:italic>
            ) populations, by comparing four of the earliest known outbreak sites to uninfected sites. Based on large-scale monitoring efforts, we found population persistence in strongly reduced abundances to over a decade after
            <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic>
            invasion, but also the extinction of an initially small-sized population. In turn, we found that host responses varied, and
            <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic>
            detection remained low, within surviving populations. Demographic analyses indicated an ongoing scarcity of large reproductive adults with potential for recruitment failure, while spatial comparisons indicated a population remnant persisting within aberrant habitat. Additionally, we detected no early signs of severe genetic deterioration, yet nor of increased host resistance. Beyond offering additional context to
            <jats:italic>Bsal</jats:italic>
            -driven salamander declines, results highlight how the impacts of emerging hypervirulent pathogens can be unpredictable and vary across different levels of biological complexity, and how limited pathogen detectability after population declines may complicate surveillance efforts.
          </jats:p>}},
  author       = {{Erens, Jesse and Preissler, Kathleen and Speybroeck, Jeroen and Beukema, Wouter and Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke and Stark, Tariq and Laudelout, Arnaud and Kinet, Thierry and Schmidt, Benedikt R. and Martel, An and Steinfartz, Sebastian and Pasmans, Frank}},
  issn         = {{0962-8452}},
  journal      = {{Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2007}},
  publisher    = {{The Royal Society}},
  title        = {{Divergent population responses following salamander mass mortalities and declines driven by the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2023.0510}},
  volume       = {{290}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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