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Criminal careers of individuals convicted for a sexual offence : an international comparison

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Abstract
By comparing criminal careers of individuals who have sexually offended to those who have not sexually offended, the current study examines whether their criminal career parameters and trajectories differ. National conviction records (entire criminal history and about 18 years of follow-up after index offence) from Belgium and the Netherlands are used to describe and compare the criminal careers of individuals involved in sexual or non-sexual offending. Group-based trajectory models are estimated for each offender class per country. The results show no substantive differences between individuals convicted for sexual offences and individuals convicted for non-sexual offences on age of onset and termination, duration, frequency, and crime mix. Group-based trajectory modeling results in a four-group model with a low-level offending (+/- 65%), late onset offending (+/- 12.5%), adolescent and young adult offending (+/- 17.5%), and persistent offending (+/- 5%) group. Trajectory patterns are similar across offender class and between countries. ANOVA comparisons between trajectory groups show few differences in criminal career parameters and many similarities. Only small differences could be established between criminal careers of persons convicted for sexual offences and those convicted for non-sexual offences. This leads us to question assumptions about persons convicted for sexual offences as offenders with unique trajectories.
Keywords
Sex offence, Criminal career, Offending trajectory, International comparison, OFFENDING TRAJECTORIES, JUVENILE SEX, DESISTANCE, REGISTRATION, RECIDIVISM, BEHAVIOR, CRIME

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MLA
Robert, Luc, et al. “Criminal Careers of Individuals Convicted for a Sexual Offence : An International Comparison.” JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 1, 2023, pp. 1–34, doi:10.1007/s40865-023-00225-2.
APA
Robert, L., Spaan, P., Blokland, A. A. J., Maes, E., Pauwels, L., Blom, M., & Wartna, B. S. J. (2023). Criminal careers of individuals convicted for a sexual offence : an international comparison. JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY, 9(1), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-023-00225-2
Chicago author-date
Robert, Luc, Pascalle Spaan, Arjan A. J. Blokland, Eric Maes, Lieven Pauwels, Martine Blom, and Bouke S. J. Wartna. 2023. “Criminal Careers of Individuals Convicted for a Sexual Offence : An International Comparison.” JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY 9 (1): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-023-00225-2.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Robert, Luc, Pascalle Spaan, Arjan A. J. Blokland, Eric Maes, Lieven Pauwels, Martine Blom, and Bouke S. J. Wartna. 2023. “Criminal Careers of Individuals Convicted for a Sexual Offence : An International Comparison.” JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY 9 (1): 1–34. doi:10.1007/s40865-023-00225-2.
Vancouver
1.
Robert L, Spaan P, Blokland AAJ, Maes E, Pauwels L, Blom M, et al. Criminal careers of individuals convicted for a sexual offence : an international comparison. JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY. 2023;9(1):1–34.
IEEE
[1]
L. Robert et al., “Criminal careers of individuals convicted for a sexual offence : an international comparison,” JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–34, 2023.
@article{01HD146NBCXBJDB6PRZ06QTV93,
  abstract     = {{By comparing criminal careers of individuals who have sexually offended to those who have not sexually offended, the current study examines whether their criminal career parameters and trajectories differ. National conviction records (entire criminal history and about 18 years of follow-up after index offence) from Belgium and the Netherlands are used to describe and compare the criminal careers of individuals involved in sexual or non-sexual offending. Group-based trajectory models are estimated for each offender class per country. The results show no substantive differences between individuals convicted for sexual offences and individuals convicted for non-sexual offences on age of onset and termination, duration, frequency, and crime mix. Group-based trajectory modeling results in a four-group model with a low-level offending (+/- 65%), late onset offending (+/- 12.5%), adolescent and young adult offending (+/- 17.5%), and persistent offending (+/- 5%) group. Trajectory patterns are similar across offender class and between countries. ANOVA comparisons between trajectory groups show few differences in criminal career parameters and many similarities. Only small differences could be established between criminal careers of persons convicted for sexual offences and those convicted for non-sexual offences. This leads us to question assumptions about persons convicted for sexual offences as offenders with unique trajectories.}},
  author       = {{Robert, Luc and Spaan, Pascalle and Blokland, Arjan A. J. and Maes, Eric and Pauwels, Lieven and Blom, Martine and Wartna, Bouke S. J.}},
  issn         = {{2199-4641}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Sex offence,Criminal career,Offending trajectory,International comparison,OFFENDING TRAJECTORIES,JUVENILE SEX,DESISTANCE,REGISTRATION,RECIDIVISM,BEHAVIOR,CRIME}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{1--34}},
  title        = {{Criminal careers of individuals convicted for a sexual offence : an international comparison}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-023-00225-2}},
  volume       = {{9}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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