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The influence of material characteristics and environmental circumstances on the efficiency of water repellent treatments of historic facades

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Abstract
Water repellents are widely applied directly to the outer surfaces of existing buildings to increase the hydrophobicity of porous materials. Research on the efficiency of water repellent treatment under practical approaches and environmental circumstances are limited. This study aims to examine the hydrophobic efficiency of a siloxane-based water repellent solvent on different materials (natural stone, brick and lime mortar) using the practical application approach of spraying, and to determine how material characteristics and application conditions affect the water repellent agent's efficiency. Spray-treated samples demonstrate comparable hydrophobic efficiency to those capillary absorbed samples, though absorb less active agent during treatment. Application temperature and relative humidity have little effect on water repellent efficiency. Moreover, the critical coverage amount for different material varied. Lime mortar and limestone's hydrophobic performance is less effective than that on brick and sandstone due to their chemical components and pore structure.
Keywords
Hydrophobic efficiency, Siloxanes-based water repellent agent, Porous materials, Practical application conditions, Hygric properties, Critical coverage, LIMESTONE, PERFORMANCE, INSULATION, COATINGS, PRODUCTS, MASONRY

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MLA
Chen, Xiaolin, et al. “The Influence of Material Characteristics and Environmental Circumstances on the Efficiency of Water Repellent Treatments of Historic Facades.” CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 386, 2023, doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.131610.
APA
Chen, X., De Kock, T., Cnudde, V., & Van Den Bossche, N. (2023). The influence of material characteristics and environmental circumstances on the efficiency of water repellent treatments of historic facades. CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.131610
Chicago author-date
Chen, Xiaolin, Tim De Kock, Veerle Cnudde, and Nathan Van Den Bossche. 2023. “The Influence of Material Characteristics and Environmental Circumstances on the Efficiency of Water Repellent Treatments of Historic Facades.” CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS 386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.131610.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Chen, Xiaolin, Tim De Kock, Veerle Cnudde, and Nathan Van Den Bossche. 2023. “The Influence of Material Characteristics and Environmental Circumstances on the Efficiency of Water Repellent Treatments of Historic Facades.” CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS 386. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.131610.
Vancouver
1.
Chen X, De Kock T, Cnudde V, Van Den Bossche N. The influence of material characteristics and environmental circumstances on the efficiency of water repellent treatments of historic facades. CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS. 2023;386.
IEEE
[1]
X. Chen, T. De Kock, V. Cnudde, and N. Van Den Bossche, “The influence of material characteristics and environmental circumstances on the efficiency of water repellent treatments of historic facades,” CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, vol. 386, 2023.
@article{01H81M92RBD57SRKZTETB96GZE,
  abstract     = {{Water repellents are widely applied directly to the outer surfaces of existing buildings to increase the hydrophobicity of porous materials. Research on the efficiency of water repellent treatment under practical approaches and environmental circumstances are limited. This study aims to examine the hydrophobic efficiency of a siloxane-based water repellent solvent on different materials (natural stone, brick and lime mortar) using the practical application approach of spraying, and to determine how material characteristics and application conditions affect the water repellent agent's efficiency. Spray-treated samples demonstrate comparable hydrophobic efficiency to those capillary absorbed samples, though absorb less active agent during treatment. Application temperature and relative humidity have little effect on water repellent efficiency. Moreover, the critical coverage amount for different material varied. Lime mortar and limestone's hydrophobic performance is less effective than that on brick and sandstone due to their chemical components and pore structure.}},
  articleno    = {{131610}},
  author       = {{Chen, Xiaolin and  De Kock, Tim and Cnudde, Veerle and Van Den Bossche, Nathan}},
  issn         = {{0950-0618}},
  journal      = {{CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS}},
  keywords     = {{Hydrophobic efficiency,Siloxanes-based water repellent agent,Porous materials,Practical application conditions,Hygric properties,Critical coverage,LIMESTONE,PERFORMANCE,INSULATION,COATINGS,PRODUCTS,MASONRY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{The influence of material characteristics and environmental circumstances on the efficiency of water repellent treatments of historic facades}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.131610}},
  volume       = {{386}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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